TNF

Generalized Anxiety Disorder Linked to High IFN-γ and TNF-α but Low IL-10 Peripheral Levels

Generalized Anxiety Disorder Linked to High IFN-γ and TNF-α but Low IL-10 Peripheral Levels

A recent Brain, Behavior, and Immunity study provides perhaps the first evidence that Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is associated with a peripheral imbalance of pro- versus anti- inflammatory cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-10. GAD, classified since the 1980s in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder is […]

New Evidence Linking IL-17 to Neuropathic Pain

New Evidence Linking IL-17 to Neuropathic Pain

A study published in Molecular Medicine Reports provides further evidence that interleukin (IL)-17 contributes to neuropathic pain through the activation of astrocytes and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Neuropathic pain or chronic pain is a disease syndrome caused by injury to peripheral nerves, the spinal cord or the brain and over 1.5 billion people suffer from […]

Perispinal Delivery of CNS Drugs: From Corning to Perispinal Etanercept

Perispinal Delivery of CNS Drugs: From Corning to Perispinal Etanercept

EVOLVING CONCEPTS ARTICLE Introduction Familiarity with the anatomy and physiology of the cerebrospinal venous system (CSVS) is necessary to understand the therapeutic potential of perispinal injection for treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders [1, 2]. The CSVS is composed of the confluence of the venous systems of the spine and the brain, which together […]

Disruption of Brain TNF Homeostasis Elicits Maladaptive Alterations Producing Chronic Pain

Disruption of Brain TNF Homeostasis Elicits Maladaptive Alterations Producing Chronic Pain

OVERVIEW ARTICLE We have determined that enhanced expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF) by both neurons and glial cells of the brain direct the process involved with the development and also the maintenance of neuropathic pain. However, TNF is not only a pro-inflammatory cytokine but is also a potent neuromodulator. TNF specially […]

Tumor Necrosis Factor Modulates Bitter Taste Responses

Tumor Necrosis Factor Modulates Bitter Taste Responses

A new study by Pu Feng and colleagues from the Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, USA, published in Brain, Behavior, and Immunity indicates that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a major pro-inflammatory cytokine is involved in the regulation of bitter taste reception. Whether inflammatory cytokines contribute to taste reception or regulation is poorly understood. TNF is […]

Perispinal Etanercept Improves Neurological Function in Chronic Brain Injury

Perispinal Etanercept Improves Neurological Function in Chronic Brain Injury

A new case report by Tobinick et al. in the May 2014 issue of Clinical Drug Investigation describes striking success with a single perispinal etanercept dose in a patient who sustained brain injury 3 years prior. Multiple reports have shown promise for use of etanercept, a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor, in patients with chronic […]

First Report That Interleukin-17A Levels Are Increased In Fibromyalgia Patients

First Report That Interleukin-17A Levels Are Increased In Fibromyalgia Patients

A recent study by Andrei Pernambuco and colleagues from the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil is perhaps the first to document increased plas­ma levels of interleukin (IL)-17A in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Interleukin-17 and the T helper (Th)-17 cells play a key role in tissue inflammation and host defense and, recently, the […]

Combat-training stress and high pro-inflammatory markers in soldiers linked to increased intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms

Combat-training stress and high pro-inflammatory markers in soldiers linked to increased intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms

A study published in the February 2013 issue of Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics reports that soldiers participating in as little as 6 weeks of combat training had high stress; anxiety and depression levels combined with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, pro-inflammatory immune activation and increased intestinal permeability. Gastrointestinal symptoms in soldiers are among the most common causes […]

Prenatal Immune Challenge – ‘Disease Primer’ Increasing the Offspring’s Vulnerability to Stress

Prenatal Immune Challenge – ‘Disease Primer’ Increasing the Offspring’s Vulnerability to Stress

A recent study published in Science is probably the first to provide evidence suggesting that prenatal immune challenge can function as a “disease primer” that amplifies the offspring’s susceptibility to stress and its detrimental neuro-pathological effects in peri-pubertal life. Epidemiologic studies indicate that prenatal infection may play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia, […]

A Mechanism Linking Immune Cells Activities, Biomarkers and Hippocampal Volume Loss to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

A Mechanism Linking Immune Cells Activities, Biomarkers and Hippocampal Volume Loss to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

In a recent review in Journal of Neurochemistry, James Andrews and Kameran Neises from the Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, California provide up to date information, and a brief but comprehensive overview on how peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and biomarkers may play a role in a putative mechanism and effective diagnosis of PTSD. […]

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