Th17

The ‘Old Friends’ Hypothesis and Why Living in the Modern World May Increase Vulnerability to Major Depression

The ‘Old Friends’ Hypothesis and Why Living in the Modern World May Increase Vulnerability to Major Depression

In this paper, Raison et al. explore evidence that the ‘old friends’ theory, heretofore associated with allergic and autoimmune diseases, can also be applied to major depression. The ‘old friends’ theory suggests that immune interactions with pseudocommensal mycobacterial species, gut flora members and helminthes regulate the immune system, thus explaining lower rates of atopic (Th2-mediated) […]

Priming of Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells with Epinephrine Favors the Induction of a Dominant Th2/Th17 Phenotype

Priming of Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells with Epinephrine Favors the Induction of a Dominant Th2/Th17 Phenotype

A new study published in the journal Brain, Behavior, and Immunity indicates that the stress hormone epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) is able to drive a Th2/Th17-shift in dendritic cells (DCs) in the presence of a pathogenic stimulus. Dendritic cells cytokine and chemokine profiles are able to shape CD4+ T cell pathways and phenotypes and […]

Substance P Promotes Th17 Phenotype in Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Substance P Promotes Th17 Phenotype in Generalized Anxiety Disorder

A study published in the journal of Clinical Immunology demonstrates that the cytokine profiles in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) individuals show traits of Th1 and Th2 deficiencies but are associated with a predominant Th17 phenotype, particularly in the presence of substance P (SP). Substance P has been shown to stimulate the inflammatory response, contributing to […]

Overview of the ”New Generation” Cytokines

Overview of the ”New Generation” Cytokines

In this review, published in Arthritis Research & Therapy Cem Gabay and Iain McInnes present the biology and relevant pathophysiology of several novel cytokines, with focus on their involvement in rheumatic diseases. This list includes the interleukin (IL)-1 superfamily (IL-18 and IL-33), the IL-12 superfamily (IL-27 and IL-35), the IL-2 superfamily (IL-15 and IL-21), and […]

PACAP as an Intrinsic Regulator of Treg Abundance

PACAP as an Intrinsic Regulator of Treg Abundance

A study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) provides perhaps the first evidence that endogenous pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) modulates the production or expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg) and T helper (Th)17 lymphocytes. PACAP is a 38-amino-acid neuropeptide identified in 1989 from […]

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