spleen innervation

The Emerging Role of Innate Immune Cells’ Network and the Cardio-Splenic Axis in Heart Failure

The Emerging Role of Innate Immune Cells’ Network and the Cardio-Splenic Axis in Heart Failure

A new study published in the journal Circulation Research is perhaps the first to show changes of the innate cells network and traffic in ischemic heart failure. Heart failure (HF) remains a major health issue, and evidence accumulated over the last decade has established immune activation or inflammation as a major pathogenic factor in chronic […]

Aging Alters Sympathetic Noradrenergic Innervation and Immune Reactivity in the Lymphoid Organs: Strategies to Reverse Neuro-Immune Senescence

Aging Alters Sympathetic Noradrenergic Innervation and Immune Reactivity in the Lymphoid Organs: Strategies to Reverse Neuro-Immune Senescence

OVERVIEW ARTICLE Current therapeutic strategies in medicine emphasize the influence of “mind” over “body” in the maintenance of health and development, progression, and recovery from diseases. This is achieved by interactions between the nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system in controlling health and disease mediated through various psychological, emotional, and spiritual factors. Several studies […]

Innervation of the Human Thymus and Spleen – an Overview

Innervation of the Human Thymus and Spleen – an Overview

OVERVIEW ARTICLE The immune and nervous systems are anatomically and functionally interconnected, this cross-talk is evidenced by the dense innervation – mainly sympathetic – of the primary (bone marrow and thymus) and secondary (spleen and lymph nodes) lymphoid organs [1, 2]. Primary and secondary lymphoid organs are innervated by the autonomic nervous system resulting in […]