sex hormones

Sex and Stem cells

Sex and Stem cells

A new study in Cell Stem Cell, discusses the “sexual dimorphism of longevity”, wherein most of supercentenarians are female, linking this to increased stem cell self-renewal and regeneration potential in females. Of note, out of the 53 living supercentenarians – human individuals currently living over the age of 110 – 51 are female, and sexual […]

Arthritis Protection By Estrogens: Driving Th17 Cells To Lymph Nodes But Restricting Their Migration to the Joints?

Arthritis Protection By Estrogens: Driving Th17 Cells To Lymph Nodes But Restricting Their Migration to the Joints?

Annica Andersson and colleagues from the Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden published in Arthritis Research & Therapy a study indicating that the regulation exerted by estrogens, to the Th17 cell traffic and migration, may play an important role in the well established protective role of female hormones in rheumatoid […]

Reproduction and Fertility Linked to the Estradiol’s Regulation of NF-κb Translocation in Dendritic Cells

Reproduction and Fertility Linked to the Estradiol’s Regulation of NF-κb Translocation in Dendritic Cells

A new study published in Genes & Immunity may explain why some immune responses, and particularly dendritic cells (DCs) functions are restrained during ovulation. The menstrual cycle is related to subtle changes in sex hormone levels (see Cover Image) that may have, however, profound effects on innate and adaptive immune responses. Estradiol levels, which are […]

Sperm-Induced Th17 Immune Responses and Their Control by Sex Hormones: Implications for Fertility

Sperm-Induced Th17 Immune Responses and Their Control by Sex Hormones: Implications for Fertility

A new study by Miguel Relloso and colleagues from the Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón in Madrid, Spain, identifies the female sex hormones as important regulators of the T helper (Th)17 response induced by sperm, and related to dendritic cells (DCs), the key professional antigen-presenting cells. Sperm is a foreign antigen (material) and its contact […]

New Link between Gut Microbes, Sex Hormones and Autoimmunity Protection

New Link between Gut Microbes, Sex Hormones and Autoimmunity Protection

A recent report by Janet Markle et al., in Science magazine, identifies a possible causative link between gut microbiota and sex hormone production that may drive protection from autoimmunity. The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract houses an extensive microbial ecosystem, represented by trillions of microorganisms located in our intestines. In fact, there are 10 times more […]

Sex Steroids Hormones and Autoimmune Disease Activity

Sex Steroids Hormones and Autoimmune Disease Activity

OVERVIEW ARTICLE Females display an increased incidence of autoimmune diseases, with a sexual dimorphism in the immune response. The autoimmune diseases involve both genetic and environmental factors and the autoimmune process is characterized by the breakdown of tolerance in subjects with genetic susceptibility, with subsequent target (organ-specific and not) injury, that, in turn, elicits repairing […]

Sex Hormones and Immunoregulation

Sex Hormones and Immunoregulation

OVERVIEW ARTICLE The sexual dimorphism in immune responses in humans is well known; females have more vigorous cellular and humoral immune responses, they are more resistant to many infections, and they suffer a higher incidence of autoimmune diseases as compared with males [reviewed in Reference 1]. Moreover, in women disease expression appears to be affected […]

Stress Response, Sex and Immunity: the Female Superiority

Stress Response, Sex and Immunity: the Female Superiority

SHORT FEATURES and FACES ARTICLE In this recent perspective, George Chrousos, M.D., discusses some new evidence indicating gender-specific differences in the actions of glucocorticoids and why women are superior to men in dealing with stress and infections. These gender differences are discussed from an evolutionary perspective, including gene network evolution and steroid molecular actions, as […]

Pregnancy and Rheumatoid Arthritis

Pregnancy and Rheumatoid Arthritis

OVERVIEW ARTICLE Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, chronic inflammatory disorder, characterized by symmetrical polyarthritis and presence of extra-articular manifestations including subcutaneous nodules, lung disease, pericarditis, hematopoietic disturbances, neuropathy, and vasculitis. RA occurs in 0.5 to 1% of the population with a female to male ratio of 3:1 and with an increasing incidence with advancing […]