purines and immunity

ATP as a Neuromediator at the Brain-Immune Interface

ATP as a Neuromediator at the Brain-Immune Interface

OVERVIEW ARTICLE The purinergic signaling system, also known as a ‘purinome’, represents extracellular signaling cascades, which are mediated by Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and its extracellular breakdown product, adenosine. This system consists of receptors, enzymes and transporters responsible for their release, actions and extracellular inactivation (Figure 1). ATP is well-known as the universal ‘energy currency’ of […]

Regulation of T Helper Cell Function by Extracellular ATP

Regulation of T Helper Cell Function by Extracellular ATP

OVERVIEW ARTICLE During immune responses a tight balance between proinflammatory and regulatory mechanisms is key in order to restore homeostasis and avoid excessive tissue damage. Among many factors modulating inflammation, extracellular nucleotides have emerged as constitutive signals of cell death alerting the immune system. Due to the ubiquitous expression of receptors for nucleotides and their […]