hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

The Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Volume 7 (NeuroImmune Biology)

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis controls reactions to stress and regulates various body processes such as digestion, the immune system, mood and sexuality, and energy usage. This volume focuses on the immune system and provides substantive experimental and clinical data to support current understanding in the field, and potential applications of this knowledge in the treatment of […]

A Mechanism Linking Immune Cells Activities, Biomarkers and Hippocampal Volume Loss to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

A Mechanism Linking Immune Cells Activities, Biomarkers and Hippocampal Volume Loss to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

In a recent review in Journal of Neurochemistry, James Andrews and Kameran Neises from the Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, California provide up to date information, and a brief but comprehensive overview on how peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and biomarkers may play a role in a putative mechanism and effective diagnosis of PTSD. […]

Functional Polymorphism in the 5HTR2C Gene Linked to Enhanced Stress-Induced Cortisol Response

Functional Polymorphism in the 5HTR2C Gene Linked to Enhanced Stress-Induced Cortisol Response

A study published in the journal Biological Psychiatry indicates that functional polymorphism in the 5HTR2C gene may contribute to altered stress reactivity, and to a specific endophenotype that may be linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. Enhanced hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and cortisol responses to stress have been linked to high […]

Evolutionary Medicine, Energy Regulation and the Pathogenesis of Systemic Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

Evolutionary Medicine, Energy Regulation and the Pathogenesis of Systemic Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

EVOLVING CONCEPTS ARTICLE The general meaning of the systemic response in inflammatory diseases is not well understood. Nor do we know whether the systemic response has any unfavorable role when inflammatory diseases become chronic. We call chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs) “systemic in nature”, but the significance of these systemic signs and symptoms is not known. […]

The Glucocorticoid Receptor

The Glucocorticoid Receptor

OVERVIEW ARTICLE Glucocorticoids, steroid hormones secreted from the adrenal cortex, play essential roles in the maintenance of internal homeostasis by influencing virtually all organs and tissues. These diverse actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and functions as a hormone-dependent transcription factor. The human GR […]

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

OVERVIEW ARTICLE The neuroendocrine and the immune system are important homeostatic mechanisms maintaining the integrity of the organism. The efficacy of these homeostats in dynamic internal and external environments is a basis for successful adaptation to endogenous and exogenous stimuli that the organism constantly encounters. The adaptive reactions are complex and their ‘self-protecting’ nature serves […]

Philip Hench – Cortisone and Rheumatoid Arthritis, 1948

Philip Hench – Cortisone and Rheumatoid Arthritis, 1948

HISTORY OVERVIEWS Corticosteroids, despite their well-recognized adverse effects, are an essential component in the treatment of many types of autoimmune and other inflammatory conditions. The discovery of cortisone more than sixty years ago inspired a wealth of endocrinologic and immunologic research and indelibly linked, often with a “love-hate” aspect, the study of hormones to the […]