hormones and th1th2 balance

Sex Steroids Hormones and Autoimmune Disease Activity

Sex Steroids Hormones and Autoimmune Disease Activity

Overview article Females display an increased incidence of autoimmune diseases, with a sexual dimorphism in the immune response. The autoimmune diseases involve both genetic and environmental factors and the autoimmune process is characterized by the breakdown of tolerance in subjects with genetic susceptibility, with subsequent target (organ-specific and not) injury, that, in turn, elicits repairing […]

Regulation of T Helper Cell Function by Extracellular ATP

Regulation of T Helper Cell Function by Extracellular ATP

Overview article During immune responses a tight balance between proinflammatory and regulatory mechanisms is key in order to restore homeostasis and avoid excessive tissue damage. Among many factors modulating inflammation, extracellular nucleotides have emerged as constitutive signals of cell death alerting the immune system. Due to the ubiquitous expression of receptors for nucleotides and their […]

Thyroid Hormone Modulation of Immune Responses in Physiologic and Stressful Conditions: Implications for Thyroid Diseases

Thyroid Hormone Modulation of Immune Responses in Physiologic and Stressful Conditions: Implications for Thyroid Diseases

Overview article Recent evidence indicates the presence of bidirectional interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and the immune system. Hypothyroidism leads to a suppression of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, effects that are often reversed by restoration of the euthyroid state. In accordance, chronic stress induces a decrease in thyroid hormone levels that in turn, […]