hormone and immune

Insulin Resistance: An Adaptive Program of the Selfish Brain and Immune System

Insulin Resistance: An Adaptive Program of the Selfish Brain and Immune System

Evolving Concepts Over the last century insulin resistance has been found in many physiological and disease states. A few examples are diabetes mellitus, obesity, infection, sepsis, different types of arthritis (including rheumatoid arthritis), systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, trauma, painful states such as postoperative pain and migraine, schizophrenia, major depression, and mental stress (reviewed in […]

Activation of Beta2-Adrenoreceptors Drives T Helper Cell Priming In Favor of IL-17 Responses

Activation of Beta2-Adrenoreceptors Drives T Helper Cell Priming In Favor of IL-17 Responses

In a recent study published in the journal Cytokine, Michela Manni, Richard Granstein and Georges Maestroni, from the Center for Experimental Pathology, Locarno, Switzerland, provide new evidence suggesting that catecholamines, through activation of beta2-adrenoreceptors (ARs) on immune cells, may drive, in certain conditions, Th17 immune responses. The authors report that the beta2-AR agonist salbutamol is […]

Thyroxine – an Endogenous Inhibitor of Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) Proinflammatory Activity

Thyroxine – an Endogenous Inhibitor of Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) Proinflammatory Activity

A new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) suggests that thyroxine (T4) is a strong endogenous inhibitor of the migration inhibitory factor (MIF) pro-inflammatory activities. Importantly, the study also indicates that low T4 and high MIF levels may contribute to the lethal systemic […]

George P. Chrousos – 30 years of Stress Research

George P. Chrousos – 30 years of Stress Research

SHORT FEATURES and FACES ARTICLE George P. Chrousos is professor and chairman of the Department of Pediatrics at the Athens University Medical School, and Distinguished Visiting Scientist, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), NIH, Bethesda, Maryland. He was for many years Section Chief, and later Branch Chief of the Pediatric and Reproductive […]

Epinephrine and Mobilization of Cytotoxic Leukocytes

Epinephrine and Mobilization of Cytotoxic Leukocytes

A new Journal of Immunology study suggests that during acute stress the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) is rapidly causing demargination of cytotoxic effector leukocytes from the marginal pool of blood vessels, thus releasing these cells into the circulation, which, in turn, may provide immediate protection from invading pathogens. Acute stress in humans is known to cause […]

Growth Hormone (GH) Replacement and Thymus Function

Growth Hormone (GH) Replacement and Thymus Function

A recent PLoS One study by Gabriel Morrhaye et al., demonstrates that the functional integrity of the somatotrope growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis is important for the maintenance of a normal thymus function in human adults. The secretion of growth hormone (GH) declines with aging until only low levels can be detected in individuals aged […]