hormone and immune system

Sex Hormones and Immunoregulation

Sex Hormones and Immunoregulation

OVERVIEW ARTICLE The sexual dimorphism in immune responses in humans is well known; females have more vigorous cellular and humoral immune responses, they are more resistant to many infections, and they suffer a higher incidence of autoimmune diseases as compared with males [reviewed in Reference 1]. Moreover, in women disease expression appears to be affected […]

Thymus Emergence & Evolution of Immune and Neuroendocrine Systems

Thymus Emergence & Evolution of Immune and Neuroendocrine Systems

EDITORIALS & OPINIONS Galen (129 – 210 or 216 AD) first described an organ located behind the sternum and named it ‘thymus’ because of its close resemblance with a leaf of the thyme plant. For Galen, the thymus was the ‘seat of soul, eagerness, and fortitude’, and this old misconception most probably explains why some […]

The Glucocorticoid Receptor

The Glucocorticoid Receptor

OVERVIEW ARTICLE Glucocorticoids, steroid hormones secreted from the adrenal cortex, play essential roles in the maintenance of internal homeostasis by influencing virtually all organs and tissues. These diverse actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and functions as a hormone-dependent transcription factor. The human GR […]

The Neuroimmune Biology of Vasopressin

The Neuroimmune Biology of Vasopressin

OVERVIEW ARTICLE Vasopressin (VP) has emerged in recent years as a very important immunoregulatory peptide of the hypothalamus. VP is capable of maintaining immune function, both innate and adaptive immunity. This is due to the ability of VP to stimulate both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and prolactin (PRL) secretion. The HPA axis is important for […]