history medicine

Bridging Neurosciences and Immunology – An Overview

Bridging Neurosciences and Immunology – An Overview

Historical Perspectives The brain and the immune system, or the “supersystems”, a term coined by Tomio Tada (1997), are the two major adaptive systems of the body. Although the immune system has been often regarded as autonomous, the evidence accumulated over several decades indicates that the central nervous system (CNS) receives messages from the immune […]

Disease-Environment Interactions: Another Contribution of Louis Pasteur

Disease-Environment Interactions: Another Contribution of Louis Pasteur

Historical Perspectives Threats of bioterrorism have renewed interest in learning more about all aspects of anthrax, particularly its deadly spores. In 1878, Louis Pasteur conducted a famous experiment on the virulence of anthrax bacilli. In so doing, he provided a sound experimental basis for the current day concept of how the environment of humans and […]

The Genesis of the Concept of Chemical Neurotransmission

The Genesis of the Concept of Chemical Neurotransmission

Historical Perspectives Although the first suggestion that a chemical transmitter might be involved with synaptic events was made by the legendary physiologist Emil du Bois-Reymond in the late 1850’s, the development of the concept of chemical synaptic transmission probably began in 1901 by John Newport Langley. A renowned British figure in the annals of Physiology/Pharmacology, […]