glucocorticoid resistance

Pro-Inflammatory Th17 Cells and Glucocorticoid Resistance: Implications for Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Their Treatment

Pro-Inflammatory Th17 Cells and Glucocorticoid Resistance: Implications for Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Their Treatment

Evolving Concepts Summary Th17 cells have heterogeneous phenotypes and functions, and can have pro- or anti-inflammatory activities. Pathogenic Th17 cells have been associated to several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Besides IL-17A and IL-17F, they also produce GM-CSF and IFN-γ, and express high levels of IL-23R. These cells are refractory to glucocorticoid (GC)-mediated T cell suppression, […]

Glucocorticoid-Resistant IL-17- and IL-22-secreting CD4+ T Cells May Contribute to Increased Disease Activity in Multiple Sclerosis

Glucocorticoid-Resistant IL-17- and IL-22-secreting CD4+ T Cells May Contribute to Increased Disease Activity in Multiple Sclerosis

A recent study published in Immunology is perhaps the first to demonstrate a correlation between the production of interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22, and its glucocorticoid resistance, and the number of active brain lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). Increased active brain lesions were found in patients whose IL-17- and IL-22-producing T cells were more resistant to […]

Important New Features and Glucocorticoid-Resistance of Pro-Inflammatory Th17 Cells

Important New Features and Glucocorticoid-Resistance of Pro-Inflammatory Th17 Cells

A recent study by Radha Ramesh and colleagues, published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine indicates that the expression of the multi-drug transporter MDR1 (also known as P-glycoprotein [P-gp] and ABCB1) is a marker that defines the pro-inflammatory nature of T helper (Th)17 cells. The Th17 cells are major players in inflammatory/autoimmune conditions, but not […]

Chronic Variable Stress May Promote Autoimmunity through Induction of Glucocorticoid Resistance

Chronic Variable Stress May Promote Autoimmunity through Induction of Glucocorticoid Resistance

A new European Journal of Immunology study links chronic stress and autoimmunity through a mechanism referred to as glucocorticoid resistance. The effect of psychological stress on autoimmunity is extremely complex, at multiple levels, and can be in either direction. Often, stress is related to both induction/exacerbation and amelioration of disease activity. Stress hormones selectively suppress […]

Glucocorticoid Receptor Resistance Linked to Inflammation and Increased Disease Risk

Glucocorticoid Receptor Resistance Linked to Inflammation and Increased Disease Risk

A new Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA (PNAS) study suggests that prolonged stress results in glucocorticoid receptor resistance (GCR), which results in a dysfunctional stress-immunity interaction, and, in turn, interferes with appropriate regulation of inflammation. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system are the two major peripheral components of […]

IL-27 and IFN-Gamma Cooperate to Induce Steroid Resistance in Asthma

IL-27 and IFN-Gamma Cooperate to Induce Steroid Resistance in Asthma

The mechanisms driving steroid resistance in asthma are poorly understood, but a new study published in Journal of Immunology indicates that a novel interleukin (IL)-27– and interferon (IFN)-γ–driven pathway may contribute to this process, where the activation of MyD88-dependent pathways in macrophages may play a critical role. The major downstream molecules that regulate IFN-gamma and […]

The Glucocorticoid Receptor

The Glucocorticoid Receptor

Overview article Glucocorticoids, steroid hormones secreted from the adrenal cortex, play essential roles in the maintenance of internal homeostasis by influencing virtually all organs and tissues. These diverse actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and functions as a hormone-dependent transcription factor. The human GR […]