cortisol

The Combination of Cortisol Diurnal Variation, IL-6 and TNF-α as Potential Diagnostic Marker in Autism

The Combination of Cortisol Diurnal Variation, IL-6 and TNF-α as Potential Diagnostic Marker in Autism

A study published in the Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders Journal indicates that cortisol, IL-6 and TNF-α may become useful markers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). At present, 1 in 68 children in the US, and 1 in 100, in the UK, develop ASD. This is approximately a 30% increase versus the previous estimates reported […]

Stress, the Reward System and the Epidemic of Obesity

Stress, the Reward System and the Epidemic of Obesity

SHORT FEATURES and FACES ARTICLE A recent review by Rajita Sinha and Ania Jastreboff from the Yale Stress Center, New Haven, CT, USA, provides an integrative perspective on the neurohormonal mechanisms by which stress affects reward pathways, and how the interactions between the stress and reward systems may contribute to the epidemic of obesity. In […]

Functional Polymorphism in the 5HTR2C Gene Linked to Enhanced Stress-Induced Cortisol Response

Functional Polymorphism in the 5HTR2C Gene Linked to Enhanced Stress-Induced Cortisol Response

A study published in the journal Biological Psychiatry indicates that functional polymorphism in the 5HTR2C gene may contribute to altered stress reactivity, and to a specific endophenotype that may be linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. Enhanced hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and cortisol responses to stress have been linked to high […]

IL-27 and IFN-Gamma Cooperate to Induce Steroid Resistance in Asthma

IL-27 and IFN-Gamma Cooperate to Induce Steroid Resistance in Asthma

The mechanisms driving steroid resistance in asthma are poorly understood, but a new study published in Journal of Immunology indicates that a novel interleukin (IL)-27– and interferon (IFN)-γ–driven pathway may contribute to this process, where the activation of MyD88-dependent pathways in macrophages may play a critical role. The major downstream molecules that regulate IFN-gamma and […]

The Glucocorticoid Receptor

The Glucocorticoid Receptor

Overview article Glucocorticoids, steroid hormones secreted from the adrenal cortex, play essential roles in the maintenance of internal homeostasis by influencing virtually all organs and tissues. These diverse actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and functions as a hormone-dependent transcription factor. The human GR […]

Philip Hench – Cortisone and Rheumatoid Arthritis, 1948

Philip Hench – Cortisone and Rheumatoid Arthritis, 1948

Historical Perspectives Corticosteroids, despite their well-recognized adverse effects, are an essential component in the treatment of many types of autoimmune and other inflammatory conditions. The discovery of cortisone more than sixty years ago inspired a wealth of endocrinologic and immunologic research and indelibly linked, often with a “love-hate” aspect, the study of hormones to the […]