brain-gut axis

Antibiotics through Effects on the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis and Inflammatory Monocytes May Reshape Brain Hippocampal Neurogenesis

Antibiotics through Effects on the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis and Inflammatory Monocytes May Reshape Brain Hippocampal Neurogenesis

A new Cell Reports study indicates that ‘inflammatory’ monocytes may represent the missing ‘pathogenic link’ between the antibiotics’ effects on gut microbiota, and the subsequent changes in the brain hippocampal neurogenesis and plasticity. Recent research suggests that antibiotics may exert some of their unsolicited side effects through effects on the gut-brain axis. Soon after birth, […]

β2-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Promotes M2 Polarization of Gut Macrophages: How the Brain–Gut Axis Maintains Tissue Homeostasis

β2-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Promotes M2 Polarization of Gut Macrophages: How the Brain–Gut Axis Maintains Tissue Homeostasis

Commentary on the study by Ilana Gabanyi et al, Cell, 2016 164, 378-391 Neuro-Immune Interactions Drive Tissue Programming in Intestinal Macrophages A new study published in the journal Cell indicates that tissue macrophages located in different regions of the gut, exhibit a high degree of specialization and form a cellular network with enteric neurons. The […]

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone’s Inhibition of NLRP6 Inflammasome May Trigger Stress-Induced Enteritis in Mice

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone’s Inhibition of NLRP6 Inflammasome May Trigger Stress-Induced Enteritis in Mice

In the June 2013 issue of Gastroenterology, Sun et al. demonstrate that in mice stress is able to inhibit NLRP6, through a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-dependent mechanism and to modify the composition of the gut microbiota, leading to intestinal inflammation. It is well known that psychological stress exacerbates the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Also, […]

New Link between Gut Microbes, Sex Hormones and Autoimmunity Protection

New Link between Gut Microbes, Sex Hormones and Autoimmunity Protection

A recent report by Janet Markle et al., in Science magazine, identifies a possible causative link between gut microbiota and sex hormone production that may drive protection from autoimmunity. The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract houses an extensive microbial ecosystem, represented by trillions of microorganisms located in our intestines. In fact, there are 10 times more […]

Combat-training stress and high pro-inflammatory markers in soldiers linked to increased intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms

Combat-training stress and high pro-inflammatory markers in soldiers linked to increased intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms

A study published in the February 2013 issue of Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics reports that soldiers participating in as little as 6 weeks of combat training had high stress; anxiety and depression levels combined with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, pro-inflammatory immune activation and increased intestinal permeability. Gastrointestinal symptoms in soldiers are among the most common causes […]

Effect of Catecholamines on Bacterial Growth: New Mechanism of Stress Influencing Digestive Health and Disease

Effect of Catecholamines on Bacterial Growth: New Mechanism of Stress Influencing Digestive Health and Disease

In a contemporary review, published in Cell and Tissue Research, Mark Lyte, Lucy Vulchanova and David Brown provide a brief but comprehensive overview of the actions of stress mediators, especially CAs, on enteric luminal bacteria, on gut mucosal interactions with bacteria, and on brain–gut interactions initiated by or influencing enteric bacteria. The autonomic nervous system […]

Dysfunctional Sympathetic-Immune Interface in Disease States of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Dysfunctional Sympathetic-Immune Interface in Disease States of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Overview article The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is an integrative interface between the central nervous system and viscera that contributes to the maintenance of homeostasis. It is comprised of cholinergic preganglionic sympathetic neurons which innervate postganglionic sympathetic neurons (PGSNs) and adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs). Catecholamines and sympathetic co-transmitters, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), or a related […]