ATP and immune system

Rhinovirus Infections via ATP Release May Trigger IL-33 Production by Bronchial Smooth Muscle Cells: Implications for Asthma

Rhinovirus Infections via ATP Release May Trigger IL-33 Production by Bronchial Smooth Muscle Cells: Implications for Asthma

A recent Journal of Translational Medicine study indicates that interleukin (IL)-33 is produced by bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) upon rhinovirus (RV) infection and activation of TLR3, and that this response is associated and/or mediated by ATP released by viral-stimulated BSMCs. IL-33 is a cytokine constitutively expressed in epithelial barrier tissues, and was originally described […]

The Innate Immune System Senses Psychological Stress through the ATP/P2X7R-Inflammasome (NLRP3) Cascade

The Innate Immune System Senses Psychological Stress through the ATP/P2X7R-Inflammasome (NLRP3) Cascade

Commentary on the study by Masaaki Iwata et al., Biological Psychiatry, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.11.026. Psychological Stress Activates the Inflammasome via Release of Adenosine Triphosphate and Stimulation of the Purinergic Type 2X7 Receptor Mental disorders are a very common condition. However, the pathophysiology of many of these disorders still remains elusive and more importantly, a very […]

ATP as a Neuromediator at the Brain-Immune Interface

ATP as a Neuromediator at the Brain-Immune Interface

Overview article The purinergic signaling system, also known as a ‘purinome’, represents extracellular signaling cascades, which are mediated by Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and its extracellular breakdown product, adenosine. This system consists of receptors, enzymes and transporters responsible for their release, actions and extracellular inactivation (Figure 1). ATP is well-known as the universal ‘energy currency’ of […]

Regulation of T Helper Cell Function by Extracellular ATP

Regulation of T Helper Cell Function by Extracellular ATP

Overview article During immune responses a tight balance between proinflammatory and regulatory mechanisms is key in order to restore homeostasis and avoid excessive tissue damage. Among many factors modulating inflammation, extracellular nucleotides have emerged as constitutive signals of cell death alerting the immune system. Due to the ubiquitous expression of receptors for nucleotides and their […]