asthma

Rhinovirus Infections via ATP Release May Trigger IL-33 Production by Bronchial Smooth Muscle Cells: Implications for Asthma

Rhinovirus Infections via ATP Release May Trigger IL-33 Production by Bronchial Smooth Muscle Cells: Implications for Asthma

A recent Journal of Translational Medicine study indicates that interleukin (IL)-33 is produced by bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) upon rhinovirus (RV) infection and activation of TLR3, and that this response is associated and/or mediated by ATP released by viral-stimulated BSMCs. IL-33 is a cytokine constitutively expressed in epithelial barrier tissues, and was originally described […]

First Evidence that IL-9 Contributes to Atherosclerosis Development

First Evidence that IL-9 Contributes to Atherosclerosis Development

Perhaps the first evidence for an involvement of IL-9 in atherosclerosis was recently reported in the online journal PLoS One by Ida Gregersen and colleagues from the Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway. Interleukin (IL)-9 is a cytokine linked mostly to T helper (Th)2 cell responses and Th2-related conditions such as parasitic helminth infections and […]

Early Childhood Farm Environment Exposure Inducing T Helper 1-Cytokine Profiles and Asthma Protection?

Early Childhood Farm Environment Exposure Inducing T Helper 1-Cytokine Profiles and Asthma Protection?

In a recent study by Heidi Kääriö et al., using samples from the Protection Against Allergy-Study in Rural Environments (PASTURE) birth cohort, demonstrate that farm exposures (stables, hay barn, farm milk) at age 4.5 years is linked to amplified Th1-type cytokine production. The research group from Finland and Germany report that peripheral blood mononuclear cells […]

TRPV1 Sensory Nerves May Be Key to the Genesis of Airway Hyperreactivity in Experimental Asthma

TRPV1 Sensory Nerves May Be Key to the Genesis of Airway Hyperreactivity in Experimental Asthma

A new study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the USA implicates the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-expressing sensory nerves in the pathogenesis of asthma and/or asthma attacks. The TRPV1 receptor, initially identified as the receptor for capsaicin, the hot component of chilli peppers, is typically expressed in sensory […]

Further Evidence That Prenatal Exposure to Stress May Increase the Risk of Asthma Development in Later Life

Further Evidence That Prenatal Exposure to Stress May Increase the Risk of Asthma Development in Later Life

A recent study published in the BioMed Research International journal suggests that maternal stress during pregnancy is able to increase offspring risk and susceptibility to asthma. Previous research indicates that prenatal and early-life stress can modify infant immune function in the long-term, including conferring a higher risk for childhood asthma (MK Pincus-Knackstedt et al., 2006; […]

Children Delivered By Cesarean Section May Have an Increased Risk for Immune-Related Diseases

Children Delivered By Cesarean Section May Have an Increased Risk for Immune-Related Diseases

According to a study published in the journal Pediatrics, a research team from Denmark provides new evidence that the offspring of women who deliver by cesarean section may have an increased risk for certain immune-related diseases. In the US, the cesarean section rate has increased from 4.5%, in 1965, to 32.8% in 2010 and 2011, […]

New Evidence That Stress In Pregnancy Increases Susceptibility to Asthma In Offspring

New Evidence That Stress In Pregnancy Increases Susceptibility to Asthma In Offspring

A recent study published in the American Journal of Physiology – Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology indicates that release of glucocorticoids (GCs) as the result of stress during pregnancy can induce asthma susceptibility in offspring. It is known that psychological stress contributes to the pathogenesis and exacerbations of asthma. One mechanism may be the capacity […]

Rejecting Allergens: The Avoidance Behavior

Rejecting Allergens: The Avoidance Behavior

EVOLVING CONCEPTS ARTICLE The immune system can recognize, assimilate or reject self and non-self components. Indeed, immunological activities vary in a spectrum that goes from total tolerance (assimilation of self and non-self) to intolerance (rejection of self and non-self). Immunologists are aware of the power of immunologic rejection of histo-incompatible transplanted organs or tissues as […]

Signaling Through Neuropeptide Y1 Receptor – a Critical Pathway in Allergic Inflammation

Signaling Through Neuropeptide Y1 Receptor – a Critical Pathway in Allergic Inflammation

In a new Immunology & Cell Biology study, Laurence Macia and colleagues from the Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Australia, demonstrate that Neuropeptide Y (NPY) exacerbates allergic airway inflammation (AAI) in mice, via its Y1 receptor.  Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino acid peptide discovered in 1982 by Kazuhiko Tatemoto, Mats Carlquist and Viktor Mutt. NPY signals […]

High Levels of IFN-Gamma, IL-4 and IL-5 in Mothers Bearing Autistic Children

High Levels of IFN-Gamma, IL-4 and IL-5 in Mothers Bearing Autistic Children

A study by Paula E Goines et al., published in Molecular Autism, indicates that divergent cytokine profiles are expressed in serum samples taken during the second trimester of pregnancy from i) mothers bearing a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); ii) a child with a developmental delay (DD) other than ASD; or iii) a child from the […]

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