What’s Hot

short notes on new advances in the field

Novel TRAIL+ NK Cell Subset May Restrain Autoreactivity in Viral Infections: Implications For Sjogren’s Disease and Virus-Induced Autoimmunity

Novel TRAIL+ NK Cell Subset May Restrain Autoreactivity in Viral Infections: Implications For Sjogren’s Disease and Virus-Induced Autoimmunity

A new study published in the journal Immunity reveals a new role of TRAIL-expressing NK cells during chronic viral infection that may provide further insights into the link between viruses and autoimmune disease development. The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo2L) is known to induce apoptosis and selective toxicity for cancer cells. However, TRAIL also inhibits autoimmune […]

New Subset of T Helper Cells May Play a Critical Role in Multiple Sclerosis

New Subset of T Helper Cells May Play a Critical Role in Multiple Sclerosis

A study by Wanqiang Sheng and colleagues from the National University of Singapore, published in Cell Research identifies a new subset of T helper (Th) cells that may play a key role in autoimmune neuroinflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis. Recent evidence indicates that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a major encephalitogenic factor contributing to […]

Important New Features and Glucocorticoid-Resistance of Pro-Inflammatory Th17 Cells

Important New Features and Glucocorticoid-Resistance of Pro-Inflammatory Th17 Cells

A recent study by Radha Ramesh and colleagues, published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine indicates that the expression of the multi-drug transporter MDR1 (also known as P-glycoprotein [P-gp] and ABCB1) is a marker that defines the pro-inflammatory nature of T helper (Th)17 cells. The Th17 cells are major players in inflammatory/autoimmune conditions, but not […]

A PTSD Mouse Model Links Stress with Acute Heart Injury

A PTSD Mouse Model Links Stress with Acute Heart Injury

In the February 2014 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA (PNAS) Ji-Hoon Choa and colleagues from the Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, WA, USA, used an adapted aggressor-exposed social stress mouse model for PTSD to demonstrate genetically associated stress-induced tissue injuries on peripheral organs, including the heart. Posttraumatic […]

Cool Housing Temperature and Cold Stress Linked To Immunosuppression and Increased Tumor Growth in Experimental Animals

Cool Housing Temperature and Cold Stress Linked To Immunosuppression and Increased Tumor Growth in Experimental Animals

In the December 2013 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA Kathleen Kokolus et al., from the Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY and the US Environmental Protection Agency, NC, demonstrate that a cool ambient housing temperature may affect the outcome of a broad range of experimental endpoints, including […]

The Emerging Role of Innate Immune Cells’ Network and the Cardio-Splenic Axis in Heart Failure

The Emerging Role of Innate Immune Cells’ Network and the Cardio-Splenic Axis in Heart Failure

A new study published in the journal Circulation Research is perhaps the first to show changes of the innate cells network and traffic in ischemic heart failure. Heart failure (HF) remains a major health issue, and evidence accumulated over the last decade has established immune activation or inflammation as a major pathogenic factor in chronic […]

Sperm-Induced Th17 Immune Responses and Their Control by Sex Hormones: Implications for Fertility

Sperm-Induced Th17 Immune Responses and Their Control by Sex Hormones: Implications for Fertility

A new study by Miguel Relloso and colleagues from the Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón in Madrid, Spain, identifies the female sex hormones as important regulators of the T helper (Th)17 response induced by sperm, and related to dendritic cells (DCs), the key professional antigen-presenting cells. Sperm is a foreign antigen (material) and its contact […]

Sarcopenia, the Skeletal Muscle as an Endocrine Organ and Aging

Sarcopenia, the Skeletal Muscle as an Endocrine Organ and Aging

In a recent review, Drs. A. Pratesi, F. Tarantini and M. Di Bari discuss major hormonal and immune mechanisms that drive the age-related decline in muscle quantity and quality. Besides the hormonal factors, the authors outline the role of some skeletal muscles mediators, termed ‘myokines’ that act in an autocrine, paracrine, or ‘hormone-like’ fashion. This […]

Neuroendocrine Immunology of Rheumatic Diseases: A 10-Year Update

Neuroendocrine Immunology of Rheumatic Diseases: A 10-Year Update

In 2001, Drs. Rainer Straub and Maurizio Cutolo, established experts in the field of neuroendocrine immunology of autoimmune and rheumatic diseases, published a large overview on the role of diverse neural and hormonal factors in rheumatoid arthritis. In the last decade, Maurizio Cutolo, president of the European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) has also organized the […]

Leptin Induces Th17 Responses: Relevance to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Leptin Induces Th17 Responses: Relevance to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

A new Cutting Edge article, in the April 2013 issue of the Journal of Immunology, identifies a link between leptin and T helper (Th)17 cells, based on the evidence that leptin was able to promote Th17 responses in human CD4+ T cells and in mice, both in vitro and in vivo, by inducing the transcription […]

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