What’s Hot

What’s hot covering significant new developments in neuroendocrine-immunology, neuroscience and immunology

Sympathetic Nerves Keep Up an Anti-Inflammatory State by Inhibiting Macrophage TNF-α Expression in Fat Tissue

Sympathetic Nerves Keep Up an Anti-Inflammatory State by Inhibiting Macrophage TNF-α Expression in Fat Tissue

New report, published in Endocrinology, implicates the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and its β2-adrenoceptor signaling pathway in sustaining at low levels the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in macrophages of lean mice. Pro-inflammatory macrophages play a key role in the pathogenesis of the systemic low-grade chronic inflammation, associated […]

First Evidence that IL-9 Contributes to Atherosclerosis Development

First Evidence that IL-9 Contributes to Atherosclerosis Development

Perhaps the first evidence for an involvement of IL-9 in atherosclerosis was recently reported in the online journal PLoS One by Ida Gregersen and colleagues from the Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway. Interleukin (IL)-9 is a cytokine linked mostly to T helper (Th)2 cell responses and Th2-related conditions such as parasitic helminth infections and […]

Arthritis Protection By Estrogens: Driving Th17 Cells To Lymph Nodes But Restricting Their Migration to the Joints?

Arthritis Protection By Estrogens: Driving Th17 Cells To Lymph Nodes But Restricting Their Migration to the Joints?

Annica Andersson and colleagues from the Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden published in Arthritis Research & Therapy a study indicating that the regulation exerted by estrogens, to the Th17 cell traffic and migration, may play an important role in the well established protective role of female hormones in rheumatoid […]

Novel TRAIL+ NK Cell Subset May Restrain Autoreactivity in Viral Infections: Implications For Sjogren’s Disease and Virus-Induced Autoimmunity

Novel TRAIL+ NK Cell Subset May Restrain Autoreactivity in Viral Infections: Implications For Sjogren’s Disease and Virus-Induced Autoimmunity

A new study published in the journal Immunity reveals a new role of TRAIL-expressing NK cells during chronic viral infection that may provide further insights into the link between viruses and autoimmune disease development. The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo2L) is known to induce apoptosis and selective toxicity for cancer cells. However, TRAIL also inhibits autoimmune […]

New Subset of T Helper Cells May Play a Critical Role in Multiple Sclerosis

New Subset of T Helper Cells May Play a Critical Role in Multiple Sclerosis

A study by Wanqiang Sheng and colleagues from the National University of Singapore, published in Cell Research identifies a new subset of T helper (Th) cells that may play a key role in autoimmune neuroinflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis. Recent evidence indicates that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a major encephalitogenic factor contributing to […]

Important New Features and Glucocorticoid-Resistance of Pro-Inflammatory Th17 Cells

Important New Features and Glucocorticoid-Resistance of Pro-Inflammatory Th17 Cells

A recent study by Radha Ramesh and colleagues, published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine indicates that the expression of the multi-drug transporter MDR1 (also known as P-glycoprotein [P-gp] and ABCB1) is a marker that defines the pro-inflammatory nature of T helper (Th)17 cells. The Th17 cells are major players in inflammatory/autoimmune conditions, but not […]

A PTSD Mouse Model Links Stress with Acute Heart Injury

A PTSD Mouse Model Links Stress with Acute Heart Injury

In the February 2014 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA (PNAS) Ji-Hoon Choa and colleagues from the Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, WA, USA, used an adapted aggressor-exposed social stress mouse model for PTSD to demonstrate genetically associated stress-induced tissue injuries on peripheral organs, including the heart. Posttraumatic […]

Cool Housing Temperature and Cold Stress Linked To Immunosuppression and Increased Tumor Growth in Experimental Animals

Cool Housing Temperature and Cold Stress Linked To Immunosuppression and Increased Tumor Growth in Experimental Animals

In the December 2013 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA Kathleen Kokolus et al., from the Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY and the US Environmental Protection Agency, NC, demonstrate that a cool ambient housing temperature may affect the outcome of a broad range of experimental endpoints, including […]

The Emerging Role of Innate Immune Cells’ Network and the Cardio-Splenic Axis in Heart Failure

The Emerging Role of Innate Immune Cells’ Network and the Cardio-Splenic Axis in Heart Failure

A new study published in the journal Circulation Research is perhaps the first to show changes of the innate cells network and traffic in ischemic heart failure. Heart failure (HF) remains a major health issue, and evidence accumulated over the last decade has established immune activation or inflammation as a major pathogenic factor in chronic […]

Sperm-Induced Th17 Immune Responses and Their Control by Sex Hormones: Implications for Fertility

Sperm-Induced Th17 Immune Responses and Their Control by Sex Hormones: Implications for Fertility

A new study by Miguel Relloso and colleagues from the Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón in Madrid, Spain, identifies the female sex hormones as important regulators of the T helper (Th)17 response induced by sperm, and related to dendritic cells (DCs), the key professional antigen-presenting cells. Sperm is a foreign antigen (material) and its contact […]

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