Neuroendocrine Immunology News

reports on new advances in the field

Innate Immune Responses Linked to Seizures

Innate Immune Responses Linked to Seizures

A study published in the journal Brain indicates that the innate immune response to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligands, most likely involving activated microglia and release of interleukin (IL)-1, results in increased neuronal excitability sufficient to trigger experimental seizures in vivo. An increasing body of evidence suggests that inflammatory processes may play an important role […]

Growth Hormone (GH) Replacement and Thymus Function

Growth Hormone (GH) Replacement and Thymus Function

A recent PLoS One study by Gabriel Morrhaye et al., demonstrates that the functional integrity of the somatotrope growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis is important for the maintenance of a normal thymus function in human adults. The secretion of growth hormone (GH) declines with aging until only low levels can be detected in individuals aged […]

Regulatory T Cells are Cerebroprotective in Acute Experimental Stroke

Regulatory T Cells are Cerebroprotective in Acute Experimental Stroke

A recent Nature Medicine study by Arthur Liesz et al. indicates that regulatory T cells (Treg) are cerebroprotective after experimental brain ischemia or stroke, and that interleukin (IL)-10 appears to be the major mediator of the cerebroprotective effects. Recent evidence indicates that inflammatory mechanisms such as up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and leukocytes’ invasion in the […]

PACAP as an Intrinsic Regulator of Treg Abundance

PACAP as an Intrinsic Regulator of Treg Abundance

A study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) provides perhaps the first evidence that endogenous pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) modulates the production or expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg) and T helper (Th)17 lymphocytes. PACAP is a 38-amino-acid neuropeptide identified in 1989 from […]

Estrogens and Dendritic Cells

Estrogens and Dendritic Cells

A study published in the Journal of Immunology demonstrates that estrogens may boost innate immunity by enhancing interferon (IFN)-γ production by CD11c(+) cells. In humans, the sex differences or the sexual dimorphism in immune defense is a well-known phenomenon. Females have more vigorous cellular and humoral immune responses, and they are more resistant to infections […]