History

BrainImmune historical perspectives overviews

Bridging Neurosciences and Immunology – An Overview

Bridging Neurosciences and Immunology – An Overview

HISTORY OVERVIEWS The brain and the immune system, or the “supersystems”, a term coined by Tomio Tada (1997), are the two major adaptive systems of the body. Although the immune system has been often regarded as autonomous, the evidence accumulated over several decades indicates that the central nervous system (CNS) receives messages from the immune […]

Bartolomeo Eustachius and the Discovery of Adrenal Glands

Bartolomeo Eustachius and the Discovery of Adrenal Glands

HISTORY OVERVIEWS Bartolomeo Eustachio was born in 1524 in San Severino Marche, a little town situated in the center of Italy and belonging at that time to the Papal States. He received from his father, Mariano, a physician said to be of noble family, an excellent classical education. Eustachio’s studies in Greek, Hebrew and Arabic […]

Caleb Parry and the Relationship Between Hyperthyroidism and Stress

Caleb Parry and the Relationship Between Hyperthyroidism and Stress

HISTORY OVERVIEWS The disease that we commonly call Graves’ disease, or Basedow’s disease in part of Europe, was actually described by Caleb Parry many years before Graves’ published a description of hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy. Caleb Parry was a British physician born October 21st 1755, who worked in Bath. He was a busy General Practitioner, but […]

Claude Bernard, the Father of Modern Physiology and Experimental Medicine

Claude Bernard, the Father of Modern Physiology and Experimental Medicine

HISTORY OVERVIEWS Claude Bernard was born on 12 July 1813 in the village of Saint-Julien, in France’s Beaujolais region. He was first educated in the church school of Saint-Julien, then at the Jesuit College in Villefranche-sur-Saone near Lyon. His school performances were not promising, and he moved to the Royal College in Thoissey. He became […]

Disease-Environment Interactions: Another Contribution of Louis Pasteur

Disease-Environment Interactions: Another Contribution of Louis Pasteur

HISTORY OVERVIEWS Threats of bioterrorism have renewed interest in learning more about all aspects of anthrax, particularly its deadly spores. In 1878, Louis Pasteur conducted a famous experiment on the virulence of anthrax bacilli. In so doing, he provided a sound experimental basis for the current day concept of how the environment of humans and […]

The Discovery of Adrenaline

The Discovery of Adrenaline

HISTORY OVERVIEWS The first practical discovery of adrenaline by man occurred when one of our ancestral hominids while out for a stroll was unexpectedly surprised by a sabre-toothed tiger. Isolating and naming the compound were not uppermost in our man’s mind at the time and it was not until the late nineteenth century that progress […]

The Genesis of the Concept of Chemical Neurotransmission

The Genesis of the Concept of Chemical Neurotransmission

HISTORY OVERVIEWS Although the first suggestion that a chemical transmitter might be involved with synaptic events was made by the legendary physiologist Emil du Bois-Reymond in the late 1850’s, the development of the concept of chemical synaptic transmission probably began in 1901 by John Newport Langley. John Newport Langley. Photogravure. Credit: Wellcome Library, London. A renowned […]

Walter Cannon: Homeostasis, the Fight-or-Flight Response, the Sympathoadrenal System, and the Wisdom of the Body

Walter Cannon: Homeostasis, the Fight-or-Flight Response, the Sympathoadrenal System, and the Wisdom of the Body

HISTORY OVERVIEWS Scientific integrative medicine finds its roots in the seemingly simple but actually enormously difficult issue of how higher organisms maintain their integrity despite the vicissitudes of life. The great French experimentalist of the mid-nineteenth century and prototypical experimentalist, Claude Bernard, propounded its founding concept. Bernard introduced the idea of the “inner world” when […]

Mental State and Tuberculosis – Tohru Ishigami, 1918

Mental State and Tuberculosis – Tohru Ishigami, 1918

HISTORY OVERVIEWS Tohru Ishigami was born in 1857, in the midst of a tempestuous period in Japanese history. The American fleet led by commodore Perry had arrived in Yokohama in 1853, and Japan slowly began to veer away from its isolationist policies, opening up to a flood of Western influence in various arenas. Importantly, transfer […]

Serguei Metalnikov – 1920s – Introducing the Concept of Immune Conditioning

Serguei Metalnikov – 1920s – Introducing the Concept of Immune Conditioning

HISTORY OVERVIEWS Any student of physiology is thoroughly familiar with Pavlov’s original work on classical conditioning, which was carried out in the 1900’s and established the concept of associative learning. Less well-known, however, are the implications this paradigm had for the study of neuro-immune interactions, a direction first notably pursued by Serguei Metalnikov at the […]

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