Hormones and Immunity

BrainImmune short overviews in this research area

Endogenous Catecholamines in Immune Cells: Discovery, Functions And Clinical Potential as Therapeutic Targets

Endogenous Catecholamines in Immune Cells: Discovery, Functions And Clinical Potential as Therapeutic Targets

Overview article The catecholamines dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline are well established neurotransmitters and neurohormones. Sympathoadrenergic pathways are pivotal to the communication between the nervous system and the immune system, and the role of dopaminergic pathways in the modulation of immune response is being increasingly unveiled. However, over the last two decades, evidence has accumulated regarding […]

Sex Hormones and Immunoregulation

Sex Hormones and Immunoregulation

Overview article The sexual dimorphism in immune responses in humans is well known; females have more vigorous cellular and humoral immune responses, they are more resistant to many infections, and they suffer a higher incidence of autoimmune diseases as compared with males [reviewed in Reference 1]. Moreover, in women disease expression appears to be affected […]

Nerve Growth Factor and Inflammation: A Complex Bidirectional Interaction

Nerve Growth Factor and Inflammation: A Complex Bidirectional Interaction

Overview article The nervous and immune systems share common functions: both are involved in adapting the body to the environment and in maintaining homeostasis. Because they are the two major adaptive systems of the body it is not surprising that they have developed common strategies: both are able to sense external and internal variations, which […]

The Glucocorticoid Receptor

The Glucocorticoid Receptor

Overview article Glucocorticoids, steroid hormones secreted from the adrenal cortex, play essential roles in the maintenance of internal homeostasis by influencing virtually all organs and tissues. These diverse actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and functions as a hormone-dependent transcription factor. The human GR […]

Regulation of T Helper Cell Function by Extracellular ATP

Regulation of T Helper Cell Function by Extracellular ATP

Overview article During immune responses a tight balance between proinflammatory and regulatory mechanisms is key in order to restore homeostasis and avoid excessive tissue damage. Among many factors modulating inflammation, extracellular nucleotides have emerged as constitutive signals of cell death alerting the immune system. Due to the ubiquitous expression of receptors for nucleotides and their […]

The Neuroimmune Biology of Vasopressin

The Neuroimmune Biology of Vasopressin

Overview article Vasopressin (VP) has emerged in recent years as a very important immunoregulatory peptide of the hypothalamus. VP is capable of maintaining immune function, both innate and adaptive immunity. This is due to the ability of VP to stimulate both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and prolactin (PRL) secretion. The HPA axis is important for […]