Fundamentals

Fundamental aspects of brain-immune interactions

Disruption of Brain TNF Homeostasis Elicits Maladaptive Alterations Producing Chronic Pain

Disruption of Brain TNF Homeostasis Elicits Maladaptive Alterations Producing Chronic Pain

OVERVIEW ARTICLE We have determined that enhanced expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF) by both neurons and glial cells of the brain direct the process involved with the development and also the maintenance of neuropathic pain. However, TNF is not only a pro-inflammatory cytokine but is also a potent neuromodulator. TNF specially […]

Acid Sensing By Sensory Neurons in Inflammation

Acid Sensing By Sensory Neurons in Inflammation

OVERVIEW ARTICLE Chronic inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), are characterized by continuous pain and RA is the most frequent form of inflammatory joint disease in the United Kingdom [1] with an estimated economic cost of ~£8bn/year [2]. Inflammation has several notable symptoms including the four cardinal ones described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus in […]

Endogenous Catecholamines in Immune Cells: Discovery, Functions And Clinical Potential as Therapeutic Targets

Endogenous Catecholamines in Immune Cells: Discovery, Functions And Clinical Potential as Therapeutic Targets

OVERVIEW ARTICLE The catecholamines dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline are well established neurotransmitters and neurohormones. Sympathoadrenergic pathways are pivotal to the communication between the nervous system and the immune system, and the role of dopaminergic pathways in the modulation of immune response is being increasingly unveiled. However, over the last two decades, evidence has accumulated regarding […]

ATP as a Neuromediator at the Brain-Immune Interface

ATP as a Neuromediator at the Brain-Immune Interface

OVERVIEW ARTICLE The purinergic signaling system, also known as a ‘purinome’, represents extracellular signaling cascades, which are mediated by Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and its extracellular breakdown product, adenosine. This system consists of receptors, enzymes and transporters responsible for their release, actions and extracellular inactivation (Figure 1). ATP is well-known as the universal ‘energy currency’ of […]

T Cell and Antigen Presenting Cell Activity During Sleep

T Cell and Antigen Presenting Cell Activity During Sleep

OVERVIEW ARTICLE Sleep supports immune defense. In the first half of nocturnal sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS) and the circadian system act in concert to induce a pro-inflammatory milieu, while immunosuppressive mediators are at lowest levels. This pro-inflammatory milieu boost and facilitates T helper (Th) 1 immune responses, like an adjuvant. On the other side, […]

Sex Hormones and Immunoregulation

Sex Hormones and Immunoregulation

OVERVIEW ARTICLE The sexual dimorphism in immune responses in humans is well known; females have more vigorous cellular and humoral immune responses, they are more resistant to many infections, and they suffer a higher incidence of autoimmune diseases as compared with males [reviewed in Reference 1]. Moreover, in women disease expression appears to be affected […]

Interferon and the Central Nervous System

Interferon and the Central Nervous System

OVERVIEW ARTICLE Interferons (IFNs) are glycoproteins known as cytokines. These cytokines got their name by Isaacs and Lindenmann [1] after their ability to interfere with viral growth and production. Isaacs and Lindenmann worked at the Medical Research Council Laboratory in Mill Hill, outside London and were the first to publish a paper on these proteins. […]

Brain-Immune Signaling: Focus on Pathogen Recognition and PGE2 Synthesis

Brain-Immune Signaling: Focus on Pathogen Recognition and PGE2 Synthesis

OVERVIEW ARTICLE The body’s reaction to infections involves the orchestration of multiple systems to effectively initiate, execute and resolve the immune response. At the core of these adaptive processes are the cellular and molecular neural, immune and endocrine interactions that begin with the central nervous system recognizing the presence of an infection. The mediator prostaglandin […]

Influence of the Sympathetic Nervous System on Regulatory T cells: Another Link in Neuro-Immune Interactions

Influence of the Sympathetic Nervous System on Regulatory T cells: Another Link in Neuro-Immune Interactions

OVERVIEW ARTICLE Homeostatic control of the immune system is dependent on CD4, FoxP3+, NKT or antigen-specific CD4+ or CD8+ regulatory T cells. These regulatory T cells are essential to prevent or mitigate autoimmunity and the immune response to non-self antigens. Herein is an overview of our observations on the inhibition of the induction of splenic […]

Innervation of the Human Thymus and Spleen – an Overview

Innervation of the Human Thymus and Spleen – an Overview

OVERVIEW ARTICLE The immune and nervous systems are anatomically and functionally interconnected, this cross-talk is evidenced by the dense innervation – mainly sympathetic – of the primary (bone marrow and thymus) and secondary (spleen and lymph nodes) lymphoid organs [1, 2]. Primary and secondary lymphoid organs are innervated by the autonomic nervous system resulting in […]

Page 1 of 212