Concepts

BrainImmune short concept and opinion articles in the field

Rejecting Allergens: The Avoidance Behavior

Rejecting Allergens: The Avoidance Behavior

EVOLVING CONCEPTS ARTICLE The immune system can recognize, assimilate or reject self and non-self components. Indeed, immunological activities vary in a spectrum that goes from total tolerance (assimilation of self and non-self) to intolerance (rejection of self and non-self). Immunologists are aware of the power of immunologic rejection of histo-incompatible transplanted organs or tissues as […]

Stress-Induced Th2 Shift & Thyroid Autoimmunity: Unifying Hypothesis

Stress-Induced Th2 Shift & Thyroid Autoimmunity: Unifying Hypothesis

EVOLVING CONCEPTS ARTICLE Thyroid autoimmunity may manifest clinically as chronic autoimmune or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and its variants (postpartum/sporadic thyroiditis) or as Graves’ disease (GD) and atrophic thyroiditis. These autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) occur as a result of aberrant immune response against thyroid antigens due to breakdown of self-tolerance [1]. Although HT and GD share […]

Major Depressive Disorder, Immunoregulation, Inflammation and Our Changing Microbial Environment

Major Depressive Disorder, Immunoregulation, Inflammation and Our Changing Microbial Environment

EVOLVING CONCEPTS ARTICLE Urbanized societies are suffering an epidemic of chronic inflammatory disorders such as allergies, autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel disease. This is at least partly due to elimination from the hygienic modern concrete and tarmac environment of microorganisms and helminths with which man co-evolved. These organisms needed to be tolerated, and so were “entrusted” […]

Thymus Emergence & Evolution of Immune and Neuroendocrine Systems

Thymus Emergence & Evolution of Immune and Neuroendocrine Systems

EDITORIALS & OPINIONS Galen (129 – 210 or 216 AD) first described an organ located behind the sternum and named it ‘thymus’ because of its close resemblance with a leaf of the thyme plant. For Galen, the thymus was the ‘seat of soul, eagerness, and fortitude’, and this old misconception most probably explains why some […]

Evolutionary Medicine, Energy Regulation and the Pathogenesis of Systemic Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

Evolutionary Medicine, Energy Regulation and the Pathogenesis of Systemic Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

EVOLVING CONCEPTS ARTICLE The general meaning of the systemic response in inflammatory diseases is not well understood. Nor do we know whether the systemic response has any unfavorable role when inflammatory diseases become chronic. We call chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs) “systemic in nature”, but the significance of these systemic signs and symptoms is not known. […]

Beta Blockers Hold Substantial Potential for Therapeutical Interventions in Cancer

Beta Blockers Hold Substantial Potential for Therapeutical Interventions in Cancer

EVOLVING CONCEPTS ARTICLE Recently, more than 10 studies [see References 1-11], published in the last 3-4 years indicate the presence of high intratumoral concentrations of catecholamines and that these neurohormonal mediators affect key components of tumor biology such as tumor growth, angiogenesis, and migration or invasion [for details see References 12-13]. These studies suggest that […]

Mainstream Immunology Research and Cultural Separation

Mainstream Immunology Research and Cultural Separation

EDITORIALS & OPINIONS One of the curious aspects of modern biomedicine is the “cultural separation” of immunology research from neurobiology and physiology research. One can argue that the failure to link the immune system to the brain (and vice versa) has played a role in the immunology’s minimal progress from the bench to the bedside […]

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