Concepts

BrainImmune short concept and opinion articles in the field

First Evidence That Th22 Cells May Contribute To the Pathogenesis of Graves’ Disease

First Evidence That Th22 Cells May Contribute To the Pathogenesis of Graves’ Disease

Commentary on the study by Di Peng et al., PLoS One. 2013 Jul 11;8(7):e68446 A High Frequency of Circulating Th22 and Th17 Cells in Patients with New Onset Graves’ Disease The many immune mechanisms involved in the onset and development of autoimmune diseases make their pathophysiology heterogeneous and complex. Among them, CD4+ T cells play […]

IL-17: A Promising Therapeutic Target in Several Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

IL-17: A Promising Therapeutic Target in Several Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

Commentary on the study by Dominique L. P. Baete and Vijay K. Kuchroo Nat Med. 2013 Jul;19(7):824-5 How Cytokine networks fuel inflammation: Interleukin-17 and a tale of two autoimmune diseases Since the discovery of T helper 17 (Th17) cells, an increasing body of evidence indicates that these cells play a major role in the development […]

A Hierarchical Cytokines Framework Defining Groups of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Learning From Cytokine-Targeted Therapies

A Hierarchical Cytokines Framework Defining Groups of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Learning From Cytokine-Targeted Therapies

Commentary on the study by George Schett et al, Nat Med, 2013 Jul;19(7):822-4 How cytokine networks fuel inflammation: Toward a cytokine-based disease taxonomy Extensive genome-wide association and epidemiological studies have shed light on the causes of chronic inflammatory diseases and have confirmed a central role of the immune system and particularly of cytokines [1]. Secreted […]

Oxytocin and Williams Syndrome: Exploring Neurobiology of Social Behavior

Oxytocin and Williams Syndrome: Exploring Neurobiology of Social Behavior

Commentary on the study by Li Dai et al., PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e38513 Oxytocin and Vasopressin Are Dysregulated in Williams Syndrome, a Genetic Disorder Affecting Social Behavior Quote from the original paper’s abstract “Results revealed significantly higher median levels of oxytocin (OT) in Williams syndrome (WS) versus controls at baseline, with a less marked increase in arginine […]

Rejecting Allergens: The Avoidance Behavior

Rejecting Allergens: The Avoidance Behavior

Evolving Concepts The immune system can recognize, assimilate or reject self and non-self components. Indeed, immunological activities vary in a spectrum that goes from total tolerance (assimilation of self and non-self) to intolerance (rejection of self and non-self). Immunologists are aware of the power of immunologic rejection of histo-incompatible transplanted organs or tissues as well […]

Stress-Induced Th2 Shift & Thyroid Autoimmunity: Unifying Hypothesis

Stress-Induced Th2 Shift & Thyroid Autoimmunity: Unifying Hypothesis

Evolving Concepts Thyroid autoimmunity may manifest clinically as chronic autoimmune or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and its variants (postpartum/sporadic thyroiditis) or as Graves’ disease (GD) and atrophic thyroiditis. These autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) occur as a result of aberrant immune response against thyroid antigens due to breakdown of self-tolerance [1]. Although HT and GD share a […]

Major Depressive Disorder, Immunoregulation, Inflammation and Our Changing Microbial Environment

Major Depressive Disorder, Immunoregulation, Inflammation and Our Changing Microbial Environment

Evolving Concepts Urbanized societies are suffering an epidemic of chronic inflammatory disorders such as allergies, autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel disease. This is at least partly due to elimination from the hygienic modern concrete and tarmac environment of microorganisms and helminths with which man co-evolved. These organisms needed to be tolerated, and so were “entrusted” by […]

Thymus Emergence & Evolution of Immune and Neuroendocrine Systems

Thymus Emergence & Evolution of Immune and Neuroendocrine Systems

Editorials & Opinion Galen (129 – 210 or 216 AD) first described an organ located behind the sternum and named it ‘thymus’ because of its close resemblance with a leaf of the thyme plant. For Galen, the thymus was the ‘seat of soul, eagerness, and fortitude’, and this old misconception most probably explains why some […]

Evolutionary Medicine, Energy Regulation and the Pathogenesis of Systemic Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

Evolutionary Medicine, Energy Regulation and the Pathogenesis of Systemic Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

Evolving Concepts The general meaning of the systemic response in inflammatory diseases is not well understood. Nor do we know whether the systemic response has any unfavorable role when inflammatory diseases become chronic. We call chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs) “systemic in nature”, but the significance of these systemic signs and symptoms is not known. In […]

Beta Blockers Hold Substantial Potential for Therapeutical Interventions in Cancer

Beta Blockers Hold Substantial Potential for Therapeutical Interventions in Cancer

Evolving Concepts Recently, more than 10 studies [see References 1-11], published in the last 3-4 years indicate the presence of high intratumoral concentrations of catecholamines and that these neurohormonal mediators affect key components of tumor biology such as tumor growth, angiogenesis, and migration or invasion [for details see References 12-13]. These studies suggest that blocking […]

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