Concepts

BrainImmune short concept and opinion articles in the field

Th17 Cells and Lymphotoxin: Conductors for the Tertiary Lymphoid Tissues and Inflammation Orchestra

Th17 Cells and Lymphotoxin: Conductors for the Tertiary Lymphoid Tissues and Inflammation Orchestra

Commentary on the study by Natalia Pikor et al., Immunity, 2015, 43:1160-73. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2015.11.010 Integration of Th17- and Lymphotoxin-Derived Signals Initiates Meningeal-Resident Stromal Cell Remodeling to Propagate Neuroinflammation Tertiary lymphoid organs, or more properly, tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs), are accumulations of lymphoid tissues that arise in situations of chronic inflammation. TLTs have been shown to […]

The Innate Immune System Senses Psychological Stress through the ATP/P2X7R-Inflammasome (NLRP3) Cascade

The Innate Immune System Senses Psychological Stress through the ATP/P2X7R-Inflammasome (NLRP3) Cascade

Commentary on the study by Masaaki Iwata et al., Biological Psychiatry, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.11.026. Psychological Stress Activates the Inflammasome via Release of Adenosine Triphosphate and Stimulation of the Purinergic Type 2X7 Receptor Mental disorders are a very common condition. However, the pathophysiology of many of these disorders still remains elusive and more importantly, a very […]

Neural Meshwork Resembling Glass Fishing Float Envelops Antigen Presenting Cells in Lymphoid Organs

Neural Meshwork Resembling Glass Fishing Float Envelops Antigen Presenting Cells in Lymphoid Organs

Commentary on the study by Clemens Wülfing & Hauke S. Günther, Sci Rep, 2015, 5:16866 ‘Dendritic cells and macrophages neurally hard-wired in the lymph node’ The sympathetic neuronal control of immunity in primary and secondary lymphoid organs is exerted through “hard-wired” noradrenergic nerve terminals through the release of norepinephrine that interacts with the immune cells. […]

2015 Bringing Some Major Advances in Neuroendocrine Immunology

2015 Bringing Some Major Advances in Neuroendocrine Immunology

Editorial In 2003, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA, launched the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, marking the renaissance in interdisciplinary research, and outlining new perspectives of cutting-edge 21st century work that crosses disciplines. The ‘interdisciplinary research’, as per the Roadmap, was defined as “integrating the analytical strengths of two or more […]

Melatonin May Control the Balance between Pathogenic Th17 and Regulatory T Cells

Melatonin May Control the Balance between Pathogenic Th17 and Regulatory T Cells

Commentary on the study by Mauricio Farez et al., 2015, Cell, 162, 1338–1352 Melatonin Contributes to the Seasonality of Multiple Sclerosis Relapses‘ The central master circadian clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The output of this system is synchronized to 24 hours by the light-dark cycle. The SCN regulates rhythms in peripheral cells via […]

The Discovery of the Brain Lymphatic System

The Discovery of the Brain Lymphatic System

Commentary on the study by Antoine Louveau et al., Nature, 2015, 523:337-41 Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels Until recently, the concept that the brain is an ‘immune privileged’ organ was widely accepted. This concept was built from two main morphological concepts, 1) the impenetrability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) […]

Sympathetic Dysautonomia in Fibromyalgia: Brief Overview

Sympathetic Dysautonomia in Fibromyalgia: Brief Overview

Evolving Concepts Fibromyalgia (FM) is a stress-related disorder that predominately affects women. FM’s outstanding clinical features are chronic widespread pain, paresthesias, allodynia, fatigue, sleep difficulties and cognitive impairment. Other FM associated symptoms relate to irritable bowel, temporo-mandibular dysfunction and interstitial cystitis [1]. FM pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Our group has proposed dysautonomia as an […]

The Power of Positive Stress and a Research Roadmap

The Power of Positive Stress and a Research Roadmap

Evolving Concepts Stress is everywhere. In evolutionary terms, given the range of stressful environmental challenges faced, the human race could not have evolved without developing successful physiological strategies to cope with and overcome potentially life-threatening challenges on a daily basis. The need for a robust response to an acute stress is well-established. Not only do […]

Neuroendocrine Immunology in 2014 – What Was Hot and Some Conceptual Trends as Presented on BrainImmune

Neuroendocrine Immunology in 2014 – What Was Hot and Some Conceptual Trends as Presented on BrainImmune

Editorial In 2014 we witnessed a rapid growth of the research and studies at the interface and intersection of neurosciences and immunology. This vast interdisciplinary area, often referred to as neuroendocrine immunology or neuroimmunology, also includes stress-immune interactions that may have complex and multifaceted impact on health and disease. Last year also brought some interesting […]

Insulin Resistance: An Adaptive Program of the Selfish Brain and Immune System

Insulin Resistance: An Adaptive Program of the Selfish Brain and Immune System

Evolving Concepts Over the last century insulin resistance has been found in many physiological and disease states. A few examples are diabetes mellitus, obesity, infection, sepsis, different types of arthritis (including rheumatoid arthritis), systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, trauma, painful states such as postoperative pain and migraine, schizophrenia, major depression, and mental stress (reviewed in […]

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