Concepts

BrainImmune short concept and opinion articles in the field

Melatonin May Control the Balance between Pathogenic Th17 and Regulatory T Cells

Melatonin May Control the Balance between Pathogenic Th17 and Regulatory T Cells

COMMENTARY ARTICLE on the study by Mauricio Farez et al., 2015, Cell, 162, 1338–1352 Melatonin Contributes to the Seasonality of Multiple Sclerosis Relapses‘ The central master circadian clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The output of this system is synchronized to 24 hours by the light-dark cycle. The SCN regulates rhythms in peripheral cells […]

The Discovery of the Brain Lymphatic System

The Discovery of the Brain Lymphatic System

COMMENTARY ARTICLE on the study by Antoine Louveau et al., Nature, 2015, 523:337-41 Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels Until recently, the concept that the brain is an ‘immune privileged’ organ was widely accepted. This concept was built from two main morphological concepts, 1) the impenetrability of the blood brain barrier […]

Sympathetic Dysautonomia in Fibromyalgia: Brief Overview

Sympathetic Dysautonomia in Fibromyalgia: Brief Overview

EVOLVING CONCEPTS ARTICLE Fibromyalgia (FM) is a stress-related disorder that predominately affects women. FM’s outstanding clinical features are chronic widespread pain, paresthesias, allodynia, fatigue, sleep difficulties and cognitive impairment. Other FM associated symptoms relate to irritable bowel, temporo-mandibular dysfunction and interstitial cystitis [1]. FM pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Our group has proposed dysautonomia as […]

The Power of Positive Stress and a Research Roadmap

The Power of Positive Stress and a Research Roadmap

EVOLVING CONCEPTS ARTICLE Stress is everywhere. In evolutionary terms, given the range of stressful environmental challenges faced, the human race could not have evolved without developing successful physiological strategies to cope with and overcome potentially life-threatening challenges on a daily basis. The need for a robust response to an acute stress is well-established. Not only […]

Neuroendocrine Immunology in 2014 – What Was Hot and Some Conceptual Trends as Presented on BrainImmune

Neuroendocrine Immunology in 2014 – What Was Hot and Some Conceptual Trends as Presented on BrainImmune

EDITORIALS & OPINIONS In 2014 we witnessed a rapid growth of the research and studies at the interface and intersection of neurosciences and immunology. This vast interdisciplinary area, often referred to as neuroendocrine immunology or neuroimmunology, also includes stress-immune interactions that may have complex and multifaceted impact on health and disease. Last year also brought […]

Insulin Resistance: An Adaptive Program of the Selfish Brain and Immune System

Insulin Resistance: An Adaptive Program of the Selfish Brain and Immune System

EVOLVING CONCEPTS ARTICLE Over the last century insulin resistance has been found in many physiological and disease states. A few examples are diabetes mellitus, obesity, infection, sepsis, different types of arthritis (including rheumatoid arthritis), systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, trauma, painful states such as postoperative pain and migraine, schizophrenia, major depression, and mental stress (reviewed […]

First Evidence That Th22 Cells May Contribute To the Pathogenesis of Graves’ Disease

First Evidence That Th22 Cells May Contribute To the Pathogenesis of Graves’ Disease

COMMENTARY ARTICLE on the study by Di Peng et al., PLoS One. 2013 Jul 11;8(7):e68446 A High Frequency of Circulating Th22 and Th17 Cells in Patients with New Onset Graves’ Disease The many immune mechanisms involved in the onset and development of autoimmune diseases make their pathophysiology heterogeneous and complex. Among them, CD4+ T cells […]

IL-17: A Promising Therapeutic Target in Several Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

IL-17: A Promising Therapeutic Target in Several Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

COMMENTARY ARTICLE on the study by Dominique L. P. Baete and Vijay K. Kuchroo Nat Med. 2013 Jul;19(7):824-5 How Cytokine networks fuel inflammation: Interleukin-17 and a tale of two autoimmune diseases Since the discovery of T helper 17 (Th17) cells, an increasing body of evidence indicates that these cells play a major role in the […]

A Hierarchical Cytokines Framework Defining Groups of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Learning From Cytokine-Targeted Therapies

A Hierarchical Cytokines Framework Defining Groups of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Learning From Cytokine-Targeted Therapies

COMMENTARY ARTICLE on the study by George Schett et al, Nat Med, 2013 Jul;19(7):822-4 How cytokine networks fuel inflammation: Toward a cytokine-based disease taxonomy Extensive genome-wide association and epidemiological studies have shed light on the causes of chronic inflammatory diseases and have confirmed a central role of the immune system and particularly of cytokines [1]. […]

Oxytocin and Williams Syndrome: Exploring Neurobiology of Social Behavior

Oxytocin and Williams Syndrome: Exploring Neurobiology of Social Behavior

COMMENTARY ARTICLE on the study by Li Dai et al., PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e38513 Oxytocin and Vasopressin Are Dysregulated in Williams Syndrome, a Genetic Disorder Affecting Social Behavior Quote from the original paper’s abstract: “Results revealed significantly higher median levels of oxytocin (OT) in Williams syndrome (WS) versus controls at baseline, with a less marked increase in […]

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