Concepts

BrainImmune short concept and opinion articles in the field

Brain Superautoantigens: Connections between Immune and Neural Repertoires

Brain Superautoantigens: Connections between Immune and Neural Repertoires

Opinion Article Introduction Although human cells express a quasi-infinite number of potential autoantigens, only a limited range of the human “self” antigen library is actually targeted by pathological autoimmunity. Accordingly, the clinical expression of human autoimmunity is essentially restricted to relatively few stereotyped disorders including psoriasis, diabetes, vitiligo, thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Thus, […]

Neuroendocrine-Immunology Progress and Development Stories: 2016 in Review

Neuroendocrine-Immunology Progress and Development Stories: 2016 in Review

Editorial Neuroendocrine-immunology has achieved substantial progress and growth over the last year. As the BrainImmune mission is to promote the advancement of this research field, it is becoming a tradition to recapitulate the latest developments in this relatively new interdisciplinary area that bridges neurosciences and immunology. Note that this is not a complete list, but […]

Pro-Inflammatory Th17 Cells and Glucocorticoid Resistance: Implications for Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Their Treatment

Pro-Inflammatory Th17 Cells and Glucocorticoid Resistance: Implications for Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Their Treatment

Evolving Concepts Summary Th17 cells have heterogeneous phenotypes and functions, and can have pro- or anti-inflammatory activities. Pathogenic Th17 cells have been associated to several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Besides IL-17A and IL-17F, they also produce GM-CSF and IFN-γ, and express high levels of IL-23R. These cells are refractory to glucocorticoid (GC)-mediated T cell suppression, […]

New Evidence that Th17 Cells Contribute to Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

New Evidence that Th17 Cells Contribute to Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

Commentary On the study by K Degertekin et al, Cytokine, 2016, 80:13-7 Circulating Th17 cytokine levels are altered in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis The T helper (Th)1/Th2 paradigm has been used to explain many aspects of immune physiology and several immune-associated pathological conditions. Recent progress in the field has prompted increased focus on other effector T lymphocytes […]

Beta-Adrenoceptors and Tumor Development: Novel Concepts and Clinical Implications

Beta-Adrenoceptors and Tumor Development: Novel Concepts and Clinical Implications

Evolving Concepts Over the last 3 decades, an increasing body of evidence suggests that catecholamine-dependent signalling may represent a major link between chronic stress and tumor progression. Studies addressing the relationship between stress-activated pathways and cancer progression suggest that stress-induced production of adrenaline and noradrenaline, besides affecting the anti-tumor immune response also displays direct tumor-promoting […]

The Nervous System’s Relationship to Immune Events: ‘Broadly Based but Cell-Faced’ – ‘wAPC’ as Hardwired Antigen Presenting Cells

The Nervous System’s Relationship to Immune Events: ‘Broadly Based but Cell-Faced’ – ‘wAPC’ as Hardwired Antigen Presenting Cells

Evolving Concepts In many textbooks, predominantly targeting medical students, i.e. anatomy, histology and physiology, or in more specialized areas of interest such as immunology or neurobiology, the innervation of immune organs is still something of a mystery as concerns the peripheral nervous system. One reason may be that the fields of immunology and neurobiology have […]

β2-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Promotes M2 Polarization of Gut Macrophages: How the Brain–Gut Axis Maintains Tissue Homeostasis

β2-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Promotes M2 Polarization of Gut Macrophages: How the Brain–Gut Axis Maintains Tissue Homeostasis

Commentary on the study by Ilana Gabanyi et al, Cell, 2016 164, 378-391 Neuro-Immune Interactions Drive Tissue Programming in Intestinal Macrophages A new study published in the journal Cell indicates that tissue macrophages located in different regions of the gut, exhibit a high degree of specialization and form a cellular network with enteric neurons. The […]

New Evidence that Catecholamines Increase Enterovirus 71 Infectivity

New Evidence that Catecholamines Increase Enterovirus 71 Infectivity

Commentary on the study by Liao YT et al. PLoS One, 10(8):e0135154. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135154. Norepinephrine and Epinephrine Enhanced the Infectivity of Enterovirus 71 Outbreaks of Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) are often reported in Asia. EV71 is responsible for syndromes like hand-foot and mouth disease, but is also involved in pulmonary edema (PE) and in neurological […]

New Evidence Suggests Targeting Neuroinflammation May Be One Key to Slowing Alzheimer’s Disease

New Evidence Suggests Targeting Neuroinflammation May Be One Key to Slowing Alzheimer’s Disease

Commentary on the study by Richard Chou et al. CNS Drugs, 2016 Jul 28. [Epub ahead of print] Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis and Risk of Alzheimer’sDisease: A Nested Case-Control Analysis Compelling new data published online in the journal CNS Drugs documents a substantial and significant decreased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in individuals with […]

Perispinal Delivery of CNS Drugs: From Corning to Perispinal Etanercept

Perispinal Delivery of CNS Drugs: From Corning to Perispinal Etanercept

Evolving Concepts Introduction Familiarity with the anatomy and physiology of the cerebrospinal venous system (CSVS) is necessary to understand the therapeutic potential of perispinal injection for treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders [1, 2]. The CSVS is composed of the confluence of the venous systems of the spine and the brain, which together constitute […]

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