TLRs-Activated Microglia Polarizes γδ T Cells towards a Neurotoxic IL-17+ γδ T Cell Phenotype: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis, Stroke and Alzheimer´s Disease

TLRs-Activated Microglia Polarizes γδ T Cells towards a Neurotoxic IL-17+ γδ T Cell Phenotype: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis, Stroke and Alzheimer´s Disease

A recent PLoS One study indicates that the cross-talk between the brain microglia and T cells that follows a microglia’s activation via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) stimulation, results in a shift of the T cells’ profile towards a neurotoxic IL-17+ γδ T cells phenotype. After the discovery of T helper (Th)17 cells in 2005, their main […]

Norepinephrine May Shift the IL-12/IL-23 Ratio of Dendritic Cells towards IL-23 Predominance thus Favoring Th17 Differentiation

Norepinephrine May Shift the IL-12/IL-23 Ratio of Dendritic Cells towards IL-23 Predominance thus Favoring Th17 Differentiation

A new study published in the January 15, 2016 issue of the Journal of Immunology indicates that in murine bone marrow–derived dendritic cells (DCs), norepinephrine, via stimulation of β2-adrenoceptors, is able to promote a shift in the IL-12p70/IL-23 cytokine ratio. Primary and secondary lymphoid organs receive a rich autonomic nervous system innervation, mainly by the […]

Evidence that Napping May Correct Interleukin-6 Changes and the Stress Induction Caused By Sleep Deprivation

Evidence that Napping May Correct Interleukin-6 Changes and the Stress Induction Caused By Sleep Deprivation

A study published in the March issue of The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM) indicates that short-term napping is able to restore, to a great extent, the neurohormonal and immune changes induced by sleep deprivation. Insufficient sleep is well-known to be associated with poor attention and performance deficits. However, an increasing body of […]

The TRPV1 Pain Receptor is Expressed and Functionally Active in Human T Lymphocytes

The TRPV1 Pain Receptor is Expressed and Functionally Active in Human T Lymphocytes

A study published in Nature Immunology reveals a previously unrecognized, ‘non-canonical’ role of the pain TRPV1 receptor – namely, its functional expression, and involvement in TCR signaling and pro-inflammatory activities of T cells. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel (TRPV1), initially identified as the receptor for capsaicin (the hot ingredient of chilli peppers) […]

A PTSD Mouse Model Links Stress with Acute Heart Injury

A PTSD Mouse Model Links Stress with Acute Heart Injury

In the February 2014 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA (PNAS) Ji-Hoon Choa and colleagues from the Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, WA, USA, used an adapted aggressor-exposed social stress mouse model for PTSD to demonstrate genetically associated stress-induced tissue injuries on peripheral organs, including the heart. Posttraumatic […]

A Set of 10 Lipid Biomarkers May Predict Alzheimer’s and Mild Dementia

A Set of 10 Lipid Biomarkers May Predict Alzheimer’s and Mild Dementia

A study published in Nature Medicine indicates that a research team from the Georgetown University, Washington, DC and six other US institutions has identified a blood lipid profile test that can eventually predict the development of mild dementia or Alzheimer’s disease (AD) within three years. In the last 15 years there have been over 100 […]

Reproduction and Fertility Linked to the Estradiol’s Regulation of NF-κb Translocation in Dendritic Cells

Reproduction and Fertility Linked to the Estradiol’s Regulation of NF-κb Translocation in Dendritic Cells

A new study published in Genes & Immunity may explain why some immune responses, and particularly dendritic cells (DCs) functions are restrained during ovulation. The menstrual cycle is related to subtle changes in sex hormone levels (see Cover Image) that may have, however, profound effects on innate and adaptive immune responses. Estradiol levels, which are […]

Sarcopenia, the Skeletal Muscle as an Endocrine Organ and Aging

Sarcopenia, the Skeletal Muscle as an Endocrine Organ and Aging

In a recent review, Drs. A. Pratesi, F. Tarantini and M. Di Bari discuss major hormonal and immune mechanisms that drive the age-related decline in muscle quantity and quality. Besides the hormonal factors, the authors outline the role of some skeletal muscles mediators, termed ‘myokines’ that act in an autocrine, paracrine, or ‘hormone-like’ fashion. This […]

George P. Chrousos – 30 years of Stress Research

George P. Chrousos – 30 years of Stress Research

SHORT FEATURES and FACES ARTICLE George P. Chrousos is professor and chairman of the Department of Pediatrics at the Athens University Medical School, and Distinguished Visiting Scientist, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), NIH, Bethesda, Maryland. He was for many years Section Chief, and later Branch Chief of the Pediatric and Reproductive […]