The Th17–IL-17–IL-17R System Linked To Altered Brain Development and Autism-Like Symptoms in Mice

The Th17–IL-17–IL-17R System Linked To Altered Brain Development and Autism-Like Symptoms in Mice

A new report published in Science indicates that the key pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-17a may interfere with the normal brain development in a mouse model of autism, causing disorganized cortical cytoarchitecture and autism-like symptoms. IL-17 is a highly pathogenic pro-inflammatory cytokine, considered a major player in several autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, whereas altered cytokine profiles and increased […]

Interleukin-35 Restrains Lymphocytic Infiltration and T Cell-Dependent Anti-Tumor Immunity

Interleukin-35 Restrains Lymphocytic Infiltration and T Cell-Dependent Anti-Tumor Immunity

A new study published in the journal Immunity indicates that interleukin (IL)-35 inhibits the recruitment of effector anti-tumor T cells and suppresses their function in the tumor microenvironment. IL-35 belongs to the IL-12 family of cytokines. It is a dimeric protein composed of two subunits – p35 and EBI3, which are shared with other IL-12 […]

Norepinephrine May Shift the IL-12/IL-23 Ratio of Dendritic Cells towards IL-23 Predominance thus Favoring Th17 Differentiation

Norepinephrine May Shift the IL-12/IL-23 Ratio of Dendritic Cells towards IL-23 Predominance thus Favoring Th17 Differentiation

A new study published in the January 15, 2016 issue of the Journal of Immunology indicates that in murine bone marrow–derived dendritic cells (DCs), norepinephrine, via stimulation of β2-adrenoceptors, is able to promote a shift in the IL-12p70/IL-23 cytokine ratio. Primary and secondary lymphoid organs receive a rich autonomic nervous system innervation, mainly by the […]

Inhibitors of RORγt Targeting Th17 Cells May Hold Promising Therapeutic Potential in Inflammation & Autoimmunity

Inhibitors of RORγt Targeting Th17 Cells May Hold Promising Therapeutic Potential in Inflammation & Autoimmunity

Recently, several RORγt inhibitors have been identified that effectively restrict the function and differentiation of pro-inflammatory T helper (Th)17 cells. The transcription factor RORγt belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily – consisting of 48 members that serve as ligand-activated transcription factors translating extracellular or intracellular signals into a transcriptional response. RORγt is the immune cell-specific […]

Sympathetic Nerves Keep Up an Anti-Inflammatory State by Inhibiting Macrophage TNF-α Expression in Fat Tissue

Sympathetic Nerves Keep Up an Anti-Inflammatory State by Inhibiting Macrophage TNF-α Expression in Fat Tissue

New report, published in Endocrinology, implicates the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and its β2-adrenoceptor signaling pathway in sustaining at low levels the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in macrophages of lean mice. Pro-inflammatory macrophages play a key role in the pathogenesis of the systemic low-grade chronic inflammation, associated […]

More Evidence that Norepinephrine and β3-Adrenoreceptors May Drive Melanoma Progression & Aggressiveness

More Evidence that Norepinephrine and β3-Adrenoreceptors May Drive Melanoma Progression & Aggressiveness

A report recently published in Oncotarget shows that the β3-adrenoreceptors are involved in melanoma aggressiveness, and that these receptors, expressed on several accessory cells, may orchestrate their function and thus, sustain melanoma progression. Recent research indicates that stress and stress mediators contribute to cancer development and/or progression. It appears that in this process a major […]

Stress May Start Driving Cardiovascular and Metabolic Risk Early In Life: Evidence from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study

Stress May Start Driving Cardiovascular and Metabolic Risk Early In Life: Evidence from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study

Ashley Winning et al. from the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts report in the the Journal of the the American College of Cardiology that psychological stress in childhood, adulthood or persistent across a person’s life can contribute to high cardiovascular and metabolic risk. Many clinical and epidemiological studies have documented the […]

New Evidence that Stress May Increase the Risk of Developing Dementia and Alzheimer’s: the Einstein Aging Study

New Evidence that Stress May Increase the Risk of Developing Dementia and Alzheimer’s: the Einstein Aging Study

According to a recent report published in the journal Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders stress may increase up to 30% the risk of developing amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) or dementia. Mild cognitive impairment is a significant risk factor for the development of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Moreover, among all MCI subtypes, patients with amnestic […]

Stress May Contribute To Male Infertility by Affecting Sperm Concentration, Motility and Morphology

Stress May Contribute To Male Infertility by Affecting Sperm Concentration, Motility and Morphology

A recent study, published in the journal Fertility and Sterility, indicates that perceived stress and stressful life events, but not work-related stress, are associated with semen quality such as sperm concentration, motility and morphology. According to a recent review article in Nature Reviews Urology a close relationship seems to exist between the testes and the […]

Th17 and Th22 Cells May Contribute To the Pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré Syndrome

Th17 and Th22 Cells May Contribute To the Pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré Syndrome

A study by Shujuan Li and colleagues from the Jilin University, Changchun, China, suggests that Th17 and Th22 cells might be involved in the onset and development of Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), described in 1916 by George Guillain, Jean-Alexandre Barré, and André Strohl, is an acute inflammatory immune-mediated polyradiculoneuropathy presenting typically with tingling, progressive […]