Microglia and TREM2 Microglia-Specific Gene May Exert a Protective Role in Alzheimer´s Disease

Microglia and TREM2 Microglia-Specific Gene May Exert a Protective Role in Alzheimer´s Disease

A study published in the May issue of Neuron indicates that the brain microglia may exert a protective role in Alzheimer´s disease (AD) by tightly wrapping around the early amyloid fibrils and plaques endorsing their compaction and insulation. In Alzheimer´s disease two hallmark protein aggregates, amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are the major players […]

Chronic Urticaria Linked to a Th2/Th17 Shift in Skin Lesions

Chronic Urticaria Linked to a Th2/Th17 Shift in Skin Lesions

A new study by Andrea Moy, Mandakolathur Murali and Rosalynn Nazarian, published in the Journal of Cutaneous Pathology, indicates that in the chronic urticaria skin lesions the immune response is characterized by a Th2/Th17 shift. Chronic urticaria (hives) is a condition where an itchy rash persists on and off for six weeks or more. The […]

Interleukin-33 Reverses Cognitive Deficits in Alzheimer’s Mouse Model Showing Promise as a Therapeutic Target

Interleukin-33 Reverses Cognitive Deficits in Alzheimer’s Mouse Model Showing Promise as a Therapeutic Target

A new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (PNAS) indicates that interleukin-33 (IL-33) is able to improve memory deficits and reduce the accumulation of β-amyloid in APP/PS1 mice that exhibit Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-like pathologies. IL-33 is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family and is considered an ‘alarm’ molecule […]

Periodontitis Linked To Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer’s Disease

Periodontitis Linked To Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer’s Disease

A new study published in the online journal PLoS One suggests that individuals with poor dental health and periodontitis may have marked increase in cognitive decline related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This is perhaps the first longitudinal study examining the correlation between poor dental health and cognitive outcomes. Research has shown that periodontal (gum) disease may […]

TLRs-Activated Microglia Polarizes γδ T Cells towards a Neurotoxic IL-17+ γδ T Cell Phenotype: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis, Stroke and Alzheimer´s Disease

TLRs-Activated Microglia Polarizes γδ T Cells towards a Neurotoxic IL-17+ γδ T Cell Phenotype: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis, Stroke and Alzheimer´s Disease

A recent PLoS One study indicates that the cross-talk between the brain microglia and T cells that follows a microglia’s activation via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) stimulation, results in a shift of the T cells’ profile towards a neurotoxic IL-17+ γδ T cells phenotype. After the discovery of T helper (Th)17 cells in 2005, their main […]

2015 Bringing Some Major Advances in Neuroendocrine Immunology

2015 Bringing Some Major Advances in Neuroendocrine Immunology

EDITORIALS & OPINIONS In 2003, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA, launched the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, marking the renaissance in interdisciplinary research, and outlining new perspectives of cutting-edge 21st century work that crosses disciplines. The ‘interdisciplinary research’, as per the Roadmap, was defined as “integrating the analytical strengths of two […]

Th17 Cells and Lymphotoxin Promote Tertiary Lymphoid Tissues Formation and Neuroinflammation

Th17 Cells and Lymphotoxin Promote Tertiary Lymphoid Tissues Formation and Neuroinflammation

According to a recent study published in Immunity, T helper (Th)17 cells initiate tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs) development in the meninges and propagate brain neuroinflammation. Tertiary lymphoid tissues or tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) represent accumulations of lymphoid cells at ectopic sites (in contrast to most lymphoid tissues developing before birth) usually triggered by chronic inflammation. […]

The Th17–IL-17–IL-17R System Linked To Altered Brain Development and Autism-Like Symptoms in Mice

The Th17–IL-17–IL-17R System Linked To Altered Brain Development and Autism-Like Symptoms in Mice

A new report published in Science indicates that the key pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-17a may interfere with the normal brain development in a mouse model of autism, causing disorganized cortical cytoarchitecture and autism-like symptoms. IL-17 is a highly pathogenic pro-inflammatory cytokine, considered a major player in several autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, whereas altered cytokine profiles and increased […]

Interleukin-35 Restrains Lymphocytic Infiltration and T Cell-Dependent Anti-Tumor Immunity

Interleukin-35 Restrains Lymphocytic Infiltration and T Cell-Dependent Anti-Tumor Immunity

A new study published in the journal Immunity indicates that interleukin (IL)-35 inhibits the recruitment of effector anti-tumor T cells and suppresses their function in the tumor microenvironment. IL-35 belongs to the IL-12 family of cytokines. It is a dimeric protein composed of two subunits – p35 and EBI3, which are shared with other IL-12 […]

Norepinephrine May Shift the IL-12/IL-23 Ratio of Dendritic Cells towards IL-23 Predominance thus Favoring Th17 Differentiation

Norepinephrine May Shift the IL-12/IL-23 Ratio of Dendritic Cells towards IL-23 Predominance thus Favoring Th17 Differentiation

A new study published in the January 15, 2016 issue of the Journal of Immunology indicates that in murine bone marrow–derived dendritic cells (DCs), norepinephrine, via stimulation of β2-adrenoceptors, is able to promote a shift in the IL-12p70/IL-23 cytokine ratio. Primary and secondary lymphoid organs receive a rich autonomic nervous system innervation, mainly by the […]