Afferent Vagus Nerve Stimulation Activates Brain Locus Coeruleus and Improves Experimental Joint Inflammation

Afferent Vagus Nerve Stimulation Activates Brain Locus Coeruleus and Improves Experimental Joint Inflammation

A recent study published in the Brain, Behavior, and Immunity journal indicates, for the first time, that stimulation of vagal afferents or specific brain areas can modulate joint inflammation. This new central pathway involves sympathetic nervous system activation and local stimulation of synovial β-adrenoceptors. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a well-known procedure that limits inflammation and […]

The Central Inflammatory Reflex: Afferent Vagal and Central Brain Stimulations Control Experimental Arthritis

The Central Inflammatory Reflex: Afferent Vagal and Central Brain Stimulations Control Experimental Arthritis

PhD THESIS SYNOPSIS Inflammation is a protective and complex biological response to harmful stimuli, such as infection and tissue damage, that involves cell infiltration and production of inflammatory cytokines. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most common type of inflammatory autoimmune disease affecting over 1.5 million adult Americans. It is characterized by chronic inflammation of synovial […]

Activation of the Brain-Splenic Nerve Axis in Hypertension: The Cholinergic-Sympathetic-Immune System Connection

Activation of the Brain-Splenic Nerve Axis in Hypertension: The Cholinergic-Sympathetic-Immune System Connection

A recent Nature Communications study indicates that hypertension is linked to T cell activation and an egression of T-cells from the spleen, and that this process is dependent on a vagus-splenic nerve connection. Hypertension is a major risk factor for coronary heart diseases and stroke. Despite various therapeutic approaches 10-15% of the general hypertensive population […]

Glucocorticoid-Resistant IL-17- and IL-22-secreting CD4+ T Cells May Contribute to Increased Disease Activity in Multiple Sclerosis

Glucocorticoid-Resistant IL-17- and IL-22-secreting CD4+ T Cells May Contribute to Increased Disease Activity in Multiple Sclerosis

A recent study published in Immunology is perhaps the first to demonstrate a correlation between the production of interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22, and its glucocorticoid resistance, and the number of active brain lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). Increased active brain lesions were found in patients whose IL-17- and IL-22-producing T cells were more resistant to […]

New Function of Microglia: Promotion of Filopodia and Hence Synaptogenesis during Early Brain Development

New Function of Microglia: Promotion of Filopodia and Hence Synaptogenesis during Early Brain Development

A recent study published in Nature Communications reveals that the brain microglia influences the developing brain through induction of filopodia creation, thus, shaping neuronal connectivity and synapses formation. Microglia are important components of the neuro-immune interactions in the brain. As the resident macrophage cells, the microglial cells provide the main immune defense in the central […]

First Evidence that Meningeal Interferon-γ Affects Neuronal Connectivity and Social Behavior

First Evidence that Meningeal Interferon-γ Affects Neuronal Connectivity and Social Behavior

A recent study published in Nature magazine links the meningeal immunity to the regulation of social behavior, implicating the meningeal interferon (IFN)-γ and its modulatory effects on the activity of brain cortex GABAergic neurons. Diseases such as autism spectrum disorder, frontotemporal dementia and schizophrenia are characterized by severe social and immune dysfunction. Little is known […]

Chronic Stress Induces Shrinkage of Medial Amygdala Neurons in Mice: Recovery by the Fast-Acting Candidate Antidepressant Acetyl-L-Carnitine

Chronic Stress Induces Shrinkage of Medial Amygdala Neurons in Mice: Recovery by the Fast-Acting Candidate Antidepressant Acetyl-L-Carnitine

A recent study in Molecular Psychiatry provides new evidence that chronic stress generates structural remodelling of the brain amygdala, and particularly the shrinkage of medial amygdala neurons in mice. Chronic stress has been linked to cognitive impairment, but it is also known that stress modifies the neuronal architecture in several brain cognitive areas. However, little […]

The Th17–IL-17–IL-17R System Linked To Altered Brain Development and Autism-Like Symptoms in Mice

The Th17–IL-17–IL-17R System Linked To Altered Brain Development and Autism-Like Symptoms in Mice

A new report published in Science indicates that the key pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-17a may interfere with the normal brain development in a mouse model of autism, causing disorganized cortical cytoarchitecture and autism-like symptoms. IL-17 is a highly pathogenic pro-inflammatory cytokine, considered a major player in several autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, whereas altered cytokine profiles and increased […]

Deficiency of Stress Resilience in Late Adolescence Linked To Increased Risk of Hypertension in Adulthood

Deficiency of Stress Resilience in Late Adolescence Linked To Increased Risk of Hypertension in Adulthood

A new study published in the journal Heart indicates that men with low stress resilience during youth are prone to approximately 40% increase in the risk of developing hypertension in later life. Of note, the combination of low stress resilience and high body mass index (BMI) triples the hypertension risk. High blood pressure is a […]

Massage May Affect Immunity via the Sympathetic Innervation and Noradrenaline Release

Massage May Affect Immunity via the Sympathetic Innervation and Noradrenaline Release

Fulvio D`Acquisto and colleagues from Queen Mary University of London, UK recently showed that 8 days of massage-like therapy (hand- but not brush-stroked mice) resulted in modulation of murine immune system’s parameters through the sympathetic innervation and noradrenaline release. Massage per se apparently had no effect on anxiety-like behaviors in mice, but the immunomodulatory effects […]

Page 1 of 3123